Male Infertility as a Marker of Future Health

  • Brent M. Hanson
  • James M. HotalingEmail author


There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that patients with male factor infertility may have overall poorer health status than their fertile counterparts and that infertility may be a marker of future health risks. Men who are diagnosed with infertility appear to have a higher risk of developing depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. Risks of specific malignancies such as testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma also appear to be elevated in infertile men. The relationship between male infertility and overall health is complex, and it is likely that multiple factors play a role in the development of subsequent health issues in infertile men. Underlying genetic or epigenetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, and environmental factors have been proposed as possible explanations for recognized associations between infertility and specific disease processes. If clear associations between male factor infertility and comorbidities can be identified, appropriate counseling and treatment can be provided to at-risk men.


Male factor infertility Somatic health Malignancy Comorbidities 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery—Urology, Center for Reconstructive Urology and Men’s HealthUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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