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The Magnocellular Theory of Developmental Dyslexia

  • John SteinEmail author
Part of the Literacy Studies book series (LITS, volume 16)

Abstract

The late 19th neurological concept of dyslexia had 3 crucial elements: selectively poor reading, with unaffected other cognitive skills and a genetic background. The contemporary ‘phonological theory’ has undermined the selectivity criterion because all poor readers, dyslexic or otherwise, have phonological problems. Here I argue that the phonological theory is pitched at too high a cognitive level so that it does not illuminate the mechanisms that cause reading problems in dyslexia. Recent genetic and imaging studies have confirmed their biological basis. In children with visual reading problems there is strong evidence that they suffer impaired development of the visual magnocellular (M-) system which is vital for tracking shifts of the focus of visual attention and of eye movements. This can often be ameliorated by viewing text through deep yellow or blue filters because they can facilitate the M- system. Likewise children with phonological problems seem to suffer an analogous impairment of sound sequencing, which can be ameliorated by musical training, particularly in rhythm; whilst those with impaired motor sequencing can often be helped by motor training. Thus in dyslexics the neural sub system which is required for rapid and accurate temporal processing and is distributed throughout the brain, appears to be compromised. This system’s ‘M-’ neurones express a specific surface marker that renders them susceptible to autoimmune attack, and the rapidity with which they have to respond, makes them particularly vulnerable to lack of omega 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. But its weaknesses for temporal processing may be balanced by exceptional talents for other kinds of cognitive task.

Keywords

Temporal processing Vision Magnocellular Colored filters Audition Embodied cognition Genetics Handedness Omega 3s Dyslexia talents 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OxfordOxfordUK

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