Hierarchical Ethnic Nationhood in the Formal Membership and Beyond: Joseonjok and Formal and Substantive Citizenship in Their Ethnic Homeland

  • Nora H. Kim


This chapter broadens the discussion of hierarchical ethnic nationhood in the context of ethnic return migration, from the current narrow focus on the labor market to the often-neglected issue of formal membership in a nation-state. It examines the issue of formal membership from two perspectives: 1) access (or roadblocks) to formal membership, and; 2) the nature of substantive citizenship after securing a formal membership. Analyzing 62 court cases where Joseonjok challenged the denial of their applications, it identifies roadblocks that Joseonjok face in their path to acquiring formal citizenship. Based on a survey data among Joseonjok who have secured formal membership, it evaluates the substantive nature of Joseonjok’s formal membership and demonstrates how hierarchical ethnic nationhood persists even for those who have secured formal membership in Korea.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nora H. Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Mary WashingtonFredericksburgUSA

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