Advertisement

The New Eastern Mediterranean as a Regional Subsystem

  • Aristotle Tziampiris

Abstract

Regions are increasingly becoming more consequential to global politics:

Many of the most important economic, military, and diplomatic interactions take place at [the regional] level for the simple reason that proximity matters. Many countries that count for little at the global level … have a much greater impact on their neighbors. At the same time, they are affected significantly by those same neighbors (Haas 2017, p. 151).

References

  1. Abulafia, D. (2011). The great sea: A human history of the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adamides, C. & Christou, O. (2015). Beyond hegemony: Cyprus, energy securitization and the emergence of new regional security complexes. In S. Litsas & A. Tziampiris (Eds.), The Eastern Mediterranean in transition: Multipolarity, politics and power (pp. 179–190). Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  3. Andoura, S. & Koranyi, D. (Eds.). (2014). Energy in the Eastern Mediterranean: Promise or peril? Gent: Academia Press. Retrieved from http://www.egmontinstitute.be/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ep65.pdf (accessed 29 November 2016).
  4. Ashour, A. (2014). Egypt’s Mediterranean identity. Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved from http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/News/6695/-/-.aspx (accessed 20 June 2016).
  5. Bagnall, S. R. (2005). Egypt and the concept of the Mediterranean. In W. V. Harris (Ed). Rethinking the Mediterranean (pp. 339–347). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Binder, L. (1979). The ideological revolution in the Middle East. New York: Huntington.Google Scholar
  7. Braudel, F. (2000a). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II. London: The Folio Society vol. 1.Google Scholar
  8. Braudel, F. (2000b). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II. London: The Folio Society vol. 2.Google Scholar
  9. Braudel, F. (2000c). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II. London: The Folio Society vol. 3.Google Scholar
  10. Braudel, F. (2002). Memory and the Mediterranean. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  11. Broodbank, C. (2013). The making of the middle sea: A history of the Mediterranean from the beginning to the emergence of the classical world. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  12. Burns, E. B. (2012). Mycenaean Greece, Mediterranean commerce, and the formation of identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Buzan, B., Waever, O. & De Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A framework for analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  14. Buzan, B. & Waever, O. (2003). Regions and powers: The structures of international security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buzan, B. (1983). People, states and fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  16. Buzan, B. (1991). People, states and fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  17. Calleya, C. S. (2003). Subregional dynamics in the western Mediterranean. Mediterranean Quarterly, 14 (2), 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crowley, R. (2015). Conquerors: How Portugal forged the first global empire. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  19. Camus, A. (1937). The new Mediterranean culture. Retrieved from http://hellenicantidote.blogspot.gr/2010/03/albert-camus-new-mediterranean-culture.html (accessed 5 April 2016).
  20. Concannon, C. & Mazurek, A. L. (Eds.). (2016). Across the corrupting sea: Post-Braudelian approaches to the ancient Mediterranean. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Cropsey, S. & Brown, E. (2014). Energy: The West’s strategic opportunity in the Eastern Mediterranean. Washington D.C.: Hudson Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/1443/2014_12_02_hudson_report_eastern_med_final_single_pages.pdf (accessed 27 November 2016).
  22. Cropsey, S. (2016). U.S. policy and the strategic relationship of Greece, Cyprus, and Israel: Power shifts in the Eastern Mediterranean. Washington D.C.: Hudson Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/1459/2015_03_us_policyandthe_strategic_relationshipof_greece_cyprusand_israel_power_shiftsinthe_eastern_mediterranean.pdf (accessed 27 November 2016).
  23. Davison, H. R. (1960). Where is the Middle East? Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/1960-07-01/where-middle-east (accessed 25 June 2016).
  24. Dokos, P. D. (2008). Countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: NATO and EU options in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Dugard, J. (2013). The secession of states and their recognition in the wake of Kosovo. The Hague: Hague Academy of International Law.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fattouh, B. & El-Katiri, L. (2015). Lebanon: The next eastern Mediterranean gas producer? The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Foreign and Security Policy Papers. Retrieved from http://www.gmfus.org/publications/lebanon-next-eastern-mediterranean-gas-producer (accessed 29 November 2016).
  27. Fawcett, L. (1995). Regionalism in historical perspective. In L. Fawcett & A. Hurrell (Eds.), Regionalism in world politics: Regional organization and international order. (pp. 37–73). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Faustmann, H. Gürel, A. & Reichberg, M. G. (Eds.). (2012). Cyprus offshore hydrocarbons: Regional politics and wealth distribution. Oslo and Paliouritsa: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (Foundation). Retrieved from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/zypern/10657.pdf (accessed 29 November 2016).
  29. Foxlee, N. (2010). Albert Camus’s ‘the new Mediterranean culture’: A text and its context. Oxford: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  30. Freeman, C. (1966). Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Freeman, W. C. Jr. (2017). Reimagining great power relations. Retrieved from http://chasfreeman.net/reimagining-great-power-relations/ (accessed 12 March 2017).
  32. Friedman, G. (2015). Flash points: The emerging crisis in Europe. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  33. Haas, R. (2017). A world in disarray: American foreign policy and the crisis of the old order. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  34. Harris, W. V. (Ed.). (2005). Rethinking the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Henderson, S. (2014). Natural gas in the Palestinian Authority: The potential of the Gaza offshore field. The German Marshall Fund of the United States Policy Brief. Retrieved from http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/opeds/Henderson20140301-GermanMarshallFund.pdf (accessed 29 November 2016).
  36. Horden, P. & Purcell, N. (2000). The corrupting sea: A study of Mediterranean History. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. Hussein, T. (1998). The future of culture in Egypt. Cairo: The Palm Press.Google Scholar
  38. International Crisis Group. (2012). Aphrodite’s gift: Can Cypriot gas power a new dialogue? (Europe Report N° 216). Retrieved from https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/141108/216-aphrodites-gift-can-cypriot-gas-power-a-new-dialogue.pdf (accessed 27 November 2016).
  39. International Crisis Group. (2015). The prize: Fighting for Libya’s energy wealth. (Middle East and North Africa Report N° 165). Retrieved from https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/165-the-prize-fighting-for-libya-s-energy-wealth.pdf (accessed 29 November 2016).
  40. Inbar, E. & Sandler, A. (2001). Security in the Eastern Mediterranean: The imperative for cooperation among Cyprus, Greece, Israel and Turkey. Middle East Quarterly, 8(2), 51–58.Google Scholar
  41. Inbar, E. (2015). The new strategic equation in the eastern Mediterranean. Ramat Gan: The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved from http://besacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/English-booklet.pdf (accessed 5 May 2016).
  42. Kahler, M. (2016). Regional challenges to global governance. In M. Kahler, C. Randal Henning, P. C. Bown, H. Wang, E. Voeteren & D. P. Williams (Eds.), Global order and the new regionalism (pp. 2–13). Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  43. Katzenstein, J. P. (2005). A world of regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Khuri-Makdisi, I. (2010). The eastern Mediterranean and the making of global radicalism, 1860–1914. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Khanna, P. (2014). A world re-imagined. American Interest. 9(6). Retrieved from http://www.the-american-interest.com/2014/06/16/a-world-reimagined/ (accessed 24 October 2016).
  46. Kouskouvelis, I. (2015). "Smart" leadership in a small state: the case of Cyprus. In S. Litsas & A. Tziampiris (Eds.), The Eastern Mediterranean in transition: Multipolarity, politics and power (pp. 93–117). Aldershot: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  47. Lake, A. D. & Morgan, M. P. (Eds.). (1997a). Regional orders: Building security in a new world. University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lake, A. D. & Morgan, M. P. (1997b). The new regionalism in security affairs. In A. D. Lake & M. P. Morgan (Eds.), Regional orders: Building security in a new world (pp. 3–19). University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  49. Litsas, S. (2015). War, peace and stability in the era of multipolarity: What lies at the end of the systemic rainbow? In S. Litsas and A. Tziampiris (Eds.), The Eastern Mediterranean in transition: Multipolarity, politics and power (pp. 1–19). Aldershot: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  50. Litsas, S. and Tziampiris, A. (Eds.). (2015). The Eastern Mediterranean in transition: Multipolarity, politics and power. Aldershot: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kissinger, H. (2014). World order. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  52. Lerman, E. (2007). The Mediterranean idea: Envisioning a brighter future for all the peoples of the Mediterranean (American Committee). Retrieved from http://www.ajc.org/atf/cf/%7B42d75369-d582-4380-8395-d25925b85eaf%7D/MEDITERRANEAN_IDEA.PDF (accessed 27 June 2016).
  53. Lerman, E. (2016). The Mediterranean as a strategic environment: Learning a new geopolitical language. Ramat Gan: The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved from http://besacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/MSPS117.pdf (accessed 1 June 2016).
  54. Lesser, O. I. (2000). NATO looks south: New challenges and new strategies in the Mediterranean. Santa Monica: RAND.Google Scholar
  55. Levitt, M. (2006). Hamas: Politics, charity and terrorism in the service of jihad. New Haven: London.Google Scholar
  56. Lobell, E. S. (2009). Threat assessment, the state, and foreign policy: a neoclassical realist model. In S. E. Lobell, N. M. Ripsman and J. W. Taliaferro (Eds.), Neoclassical realism, the state, and foreign policy (pp. 42–74). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mansel, P. (2010). Levant: Splendour and catastrophe on the Mediterranean. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  58. Mikanowski, J. (2017). Goodbye, Eastern Europe. Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved from https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/goodbye-eastern-europe/ (accessed 7 March 2017).
  59. Nocke, A. (2009). The place of the Mediterranean in modern Israeli history. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Norwich, J. J. (2006). The middle sea: A history of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  61. Nye, S. J. Jr. (1968). International regionalism. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  62. Paul, V. T. (Ed.). (2012). International relations theory and regional transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Petasis, A. (Ed.). (2016). Intractable dilemmas in the energy-rich Eastern Mediterranean. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Publishing Scholars.Google Scholar
  64. Portugali, J. (2004). The Mediterranean as a cognitive map. Mediterranean Historical Review, 19(2), 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Proedrou, F. (2012). Re-conceptualizing the energy and security complex in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Cyprus Review, 24(2), 15–28.Google Scholar
  66. Purcell, N. (2003). The boundless sea of unlikeness? On defining the Mediterranean. Mediterranean Historical Review, 18(2), 9–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quandt, B. W. (Ed.). (2011). Troubled triangle: The United States, Turkey, and Israel in the New Middle East. Charlottesville: Just World Books.Google Scholar
  68. Ratner, M. (2016). Natural gas discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/R44591.pdf (accessed 27 November 2016).
  69. Russett, M. B. (1967). International regions and the international system: A study in political ecology. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  70. Sachs, N. & Boersma, T. (2015). The energy island: Israel deals with its natural gas discoveries. Foreign Policy at Brookings. Policy Paper Number 35. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Energy-Island-web.pdf (accessed 29 November 2016).
  71. Samaan, J-L. (2016). The east Mediterranean triangle at crossroads (U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute). Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB1314.pdf (accessed 27 June 2016).
  72. Schenk, C.J., Kirschbaum, M.A., Charpentier, R.R., Klett, T.R., Brownfield, M.E., Pitman, J.K., Cook, T.A. & Tennyson, M.E., (2010). Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Levant Basin Province. Eastern Mediterranean: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet (pp. 2010–3014). Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3014/pdf/FS10-3014.pdf (accessed 27 November 2016).
  73. Shavit, Y. (1988). The Mediterranean World and ‘Mediterraneanism’: The origins, meaning, and application of a geo-cultural notion in Israel. Mediterranean Historical Review, 3(2), 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Solomon, B. A. (2016). Israel should avoid Turkey, include Cyprus in gas exports projects. The Begin-Sadat Center For Strategic Studies Perspectives. Paper No. 370. Retrieved from http://besacenter.org/perspectives-papers/370-ben-solomon-israel-avoid-turkey-include-cyprus-gas-export-projects/ (accessed 29 November 2016).
  75. Stern, J. & Berger, M. J. (2015). ISIS: The state of terror. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  76. Tagliapietra, S. & Zachmann, G. (2015). Egypt: The catalyst for a new Eastern Mediterranean gas hub? (Blog Post Brueghel). Retrieved from http://bruegel.org/2015/11/egypt-the-catalyst-for-a-new-eastern-mediterranean-gas-hub/ (accessed 29 November 2016).
  77. Ther, P. (2016). Europe since 1989: A history. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Thompson, R. W. (1973). The regional subsystem: A conceptual explication and a propositional inventory. International Studies Quarterly, 17(1), 89–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsafos, N. (2016). Israeli gas: Too soon to declare victory. The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Policy Brief Foreign and Security Policy Program. Retrieved from http://www.gmfus.org/publications/israeli-gas-too-soon-declare-victory (accessed 29 November 2016).
  80. Tsakiris, T. (2014). Greece and the energy geopolitics of the eastern Mediterranean. LSE Ideas, Strategic update 14.1. Retrieved from http://www.lse.ac.uk/IDEAS/publications/reports/SU14_7.aspx (accessed 29 November 2016).
  81. Tziampiris, A. (2015a). The emergence of Israeli Greek cooperation. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tziampiris, A. (2015b). The Israeli-Greek rapprochement: Stability and cooperation in the Eastern Mediterranean. In S. Litsas & A. Tziampiris (Eds.), The Eastern Mediterranean in transition: Multipolarity, politics and power (pp. 239–254). Aldershot: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  83. Tziarras, Z. (2016). Israel-Cyprus-Greece: A “comfortable” quasi-alliance. Mediterranean Politics, 21(3), 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tziarras, Z. & Moudouros, N. (2016). Turkey in the Eastern Mediterranean: Ideological aspects of foreign policy. Athens: Touriki [In Greek].Google Scholar
  85. Waltz, K. (1979). Theory of international politics. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  86. Wright, J. T. (2017). All measures short of war: The contest for the 21stcentury and the future of American power. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Youngs, R. (2015). 20 Years of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Mediterranean Politics. Retrieved from http://carnegieeurope.eu/2015/05/18/20-years-of-euro-mediterranean-partnership-pub-60337 (accessed 4 November 2016).
  88. Zweiri, M. & Pantaleo, N. (2008). Will the Union for the Mediterranean learn from the Barcelona process? Research Institute for European and American Studies. Research paper No. 124. Retrieved from http://rieas.gr/images/RIEAS124.pdf (accessed 4 November 2016).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aristotle Tziampiris
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International and European StudiesUniversity of PiraeusPiraeusGreece

Personalised recommendations