• Hanna Samir Kassab
  • Jonathan D. Rosen


Illicit markets exist as long as there is a demand. Countries must also address the underlying institutional and socio-economic problems that can cause individuals to partake in illicit activities. If development is significant and sustained, it is possible that there will be a reduction in those supplying and trafficking illicit goods. This chapter explores policy developments in two developed and democratic governments, Portugal and the Netherlands, and in the cyber realm.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanna Samir Kassab
    • 1
  • Jonathan D. Rosen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceNorthern Michigan UniversityMarquetteUSA
  2. 2.Holy Family UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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