Advertisement

Emotional Intelligence as Personality: Measurement and Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence in Educational Contexts

  • K. V. Petrides
  • Maria-Jose Sanchez-Ruiz
  • Alex B. Siegling
  • Donald H. Saklofske
  • Stella Mavroveli
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) is formally defined as a constellation of emotional perceptions assessed through questionnaires and rating scales (Petrides et al. Br J Psychol 98:273–289, 2007). The construct describes our perceptions of our emotional world (e.g., how good we believe we are in terms of understanding, managing, and utilizing our own and other people’s emotions). Although it has been empirically demonstrated that these perceptions affect virtually every area of our life, the present chapter focuses exclusively on their role in education. We begin with a brief overview of trait EI theory and measures that have been salient in education research, with particular emphasis on scales developed for children and adolescents. Subsequently, we summarize the effects of trait EI on academic performance and related variables across primary, secondary, and tertiary education. The review of the evidence indicates that research-based applications of trait EI theory in educational settings can yield concrete and lasting advantages for both individuals and schools.

Keywords

Trait emotional intelligence Measurement TEIQue Children and adolescents Postsecondary education Academic performance 

References

  1. Abdollahi, A., Yaacob, S. N., Talib, M. A., & Ismail, Z. (2015). Social anxiety and cigarette smoking in adolescents: The mediating role of emotional intelligence. School Mental Health, 7, 184–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adeyemo, D. A. (2007). Moderating influence of emotional intelligence on the link between academic self-efficacy and achievement of university students. Psychology & Developing Societies, 19, 199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnoli, S., Mancini, G., Pozzoli, T., Baldaro, B., Russo, P. M., & Surcinelli, P. (2012). The interaction between emotional intelligence and cognitive ability in predicting scholastic performance in school-aged children. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 660–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrei, F., Mancini, G., Mazzoni, E., Russo, P. M., & Baldaro, B. (2015). Social status and its link with personality dimensions, trait emotional intelligence, and scholastic achievement in children and early adolescents. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrei, F., Mancini, G., Trombini, E., Baldaro, B., & Russo, P. M. (2014). Testing the incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence: Evidence from an Italian sample of adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrei, F., Siegling, A. B., Aloe, A. M., Baldaro, B., & Petrides, K. V. (2016). The incremental validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 261–276.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Atkinson, R. C., & Geiser, S. (2009). Reflections on a century of college admissions tests. Educational Researcher, 38, 665–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin, E. J., Evans, P., Goldwater, R., & Potter, V. (2005). A preliminary study of emotional intelligence, empathy and exam performance in first year medical students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1395–1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Austin, E. J., Saklofske, D. H., & Egan, V. (2005). Personality, Well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 547–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Austin, E. J., Saklofske, D. H., Huang, S. H., & McKenney, D. (2004). Measurement of trait emotional intelligence: Testing and cross-validating a modified version of Schutte et al.’s (1998) measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-health Systems.Google Scholar
  12. Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18, 13–25.Google Scholar
  13. Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2000). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQ-I:YV) technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  14. Baroncelli, A., & Ciucci, E. (2014). Unique effects of different components of trait emotional intelligence in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 807–815.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Brody, N. (2000). History of theories and measurements of intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Brouzos, A., Misailidi, P., & Hadjimattheou, A. (2014). Associations between emotional intelligence, socio-emotional adjustment, and academic achievement in childhood. The influence of age. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 29, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 788–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charbonneau, D., & Nicol, A. A. (2002). Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. Psychological Reports, 90, 361–370.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Ciarrochi, J., Chan, A. Y., & Bajgar, J. (2001). Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1105–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coetzee, M., & Harry, N. (2014). Emotional intelligence as a predictor of employees' career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84, 90–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collins, L. M. (2006). Analysis of longitudinal data: The integration of theoretical model, temporal design, and statistical model. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 505–528.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Costa, A., & Faria, L. (2015). The impact of emotional intelligence on academic achievement: A longitudinal study in Portuguese secondary school. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, S. K., & Humphrey, N. (2012). Emotional intelligence predicts adolescent mental health beyond personality and cognitive ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 144–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2009). An in-depth look at scholastic success: Fluid intelligence, personality traits or emotional intelligence? Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 581–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Di Fabio, A., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014). Promoting individual resources: The challenge of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Didier, T., Kreiter, C. D., Buri, R., & Solow, C. (2006). Investigating the utility of a GPA institutional adjustment index. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11, 145–153.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Downey, L. A., Mountstephen, J., Lloyd, J., Hansen, K., & Stough, C. (2008). Emotional intelligence and scholastic achievement in Australian adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 60, 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 474–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. El Hassan, K., & El Sader, M. (2005). Adapting and validating the BarOn EQ–i:YV in the Lebanese context. International Journal of Testing, 5, 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2006). Emotional intelligence as predictor of mental, social, and physical health in university students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 45–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fallahzadeh, H. (2011). The relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement in medical science students in Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1461–1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernandez, R., Salamonson, Y., & Griffiths, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence as a predictor of academic performance in first-year accelerated graduate entry nursing students. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 3485–3492.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrando, M., Prieto, M. D., Almeida, L. S., Ferrandiz, C., Bermejo, R., Lopez-Pina, J. A., … Fernandez, M.-C. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence and academic performance: Controlling for the effects of IQ, personality, and self-concept. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29, 150–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Forushani, N. Z., & Besharat, M. A. (2011). Relation between emotional intelligence and perceived stress among female students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1109–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frederickson, N., Petrides, K. V., & Simmonds, E. (2012). Trait emotional intelligence as a predictor of socioemotional outcomes in early adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fukuda, E., Saklofske, D. H., Tamaoka, K., Fung, T. S., Miyaoka, Y., & Kiyama, S. (2011). Factor structure of Japanese versions of two emotional intelligence scales. International Journal of Testing, 11, 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Furnham, A., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & McDougall, F. (2002). Personality, cognitive ability, and beliefs about intelligence as predictors of academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 14, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. García-Sancho, E., Salguero, J. M., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2014). Relationship between emotional intelligence and aggression: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 584–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gignac, G. E., Palmer, B. R., Manocha, R., & Stough, C. (2005). An examination of the factor structure of the Schutte self-report emotional intelligence (SSREI) scale via confirmatory factor analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1029–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence. Intelligence, 31, 343–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gower, A. L., Shlafer, R. J., Polan, J., McRee, A. L., McMorris, B. J., Pettingell, S. L., & Sieving, R. E. (2014). Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls' social–emotional intelligence and violence perpetration. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 67–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Guskey, T. R. (2015). On your mark: Challenging the conventions of grading and reporting. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.Google Scholar
  43. Harms, P. D., & Credé, M. (2010). Remaining issues in emotional intelligence research: Construct overlap, method artifacts, and lack of incremental validity. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 154–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2014). Academic self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, GPA and academic procrastination in higher education. Eurasian Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, V. (2003). Grade inflation: A crisis in higher education. New York: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. Karatas, H., Alci, B., & Aydin, H. (2013). Correlation among high school senior students’ test anxiety, academic performance and points of university entrance exam. Educational Research Reviews, 8, 919–926.Google Scholar
  47. Keefer, K. V., Holden, R. R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2013). Longitudinal assessment of trait emotional intelligence: Measurement invariance and construct continuity from late childhood to adolescence. Psychological Assessment, 25, 1255–1272.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keefer, K. V., Parker, J. D. A., & Wood, L. M. (2012). Trait emotional intelligence and university graduation outcomes: Using latent profile analysis to identify students at risk for degree non-completion. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 402–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ko, F. S. L., & Siu, A. M. H. (2013). Validation of a Chinese version of the Assessing Emotions Scale for measuring the emotional intelligence of Chinese adolescents. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijdhd-2013-0017
  50. Kokkinos, C. M., & Kipritsi, E. (2012). The relationship between bullying, victimization, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and empathy among preadolescents. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kotsou, I., Nelis, D., Grégoire, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Emotional plasticity: Conditions and effects of improving emotional competence in adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 827–839.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Kun, B., & Demetrovics, Z. (2010). Emotional intelligence and addictions: A systematic review. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(7–8), 1131–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kun, B., Urbán, R., Paksi, B., Csóbor, L. V., Oláh, A., & Demetrovics, Z. (2012). Psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version, Short Form in Hungarian high school students. Psychological Assessment, 24, 518–523.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Laidra, K., Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lando-King, E., McRee, A.-L., Gower, A. L., Shlafer, R. J., McMorris, B. J., Pettingell, S., & Sieving, R. E. (2015). Relationships between social-emotional intelligence and sexual risk behaviors in adolescent girls. The Journal of Sex Research, 52, 835–840.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Liau, A. K., Liau, A. W. L., Teoh, G. B. S., & Liau, M. T. L. (2003). The case for emotional literacy: The influence of emotional intelligence on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students. Journal of Moral Education, 32, 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lomas, J., Stough, C., Hansen, K., & Downey, L. A. (2012). Brief report: Emotional intelligence, victimisation and bullying in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 207–211.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Maguire, R., Egan, A., Hyland, P., & Maguire, P. (2017). Engaging students emotionally: The role of emotional intelligence in predicting cognitive and affective engagement in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 36, 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mancini, G., Andrei, F., Mazzoni, E., Biolcati, R., Baldaro, B., & Trombini, E. (2017). Brief report: Trait emotional intelligence, peer nominations, and scholastic achievement in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 59, 129–133.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Marsh, H. W., & Ayotte, V. (2003). Do multiple dimensions of self-concept become more differentiated with age? The differential distinctiveness hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Rieffe, C., & Bakker, F. (2007). Trait emotional intelligence, psychological Well-being and peer-rated social competence in adolescence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, Y., & Furnham, A. (2009). Exploring the relationships between trait emotional intelligence and objective socio-emotional outcomes in childhood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 259–272.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Shove, C., & Whitehead, A. (2008). Investigation of the construct of trait emotional intelligence in children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 516–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mavroveli, S., & Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J. (2011). Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 112–134.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). New York, NY, US: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  67. McIlvain, S. J., Miller, B., Lawhead, B. A., Barbosa-Leiker, C., & Anderson, A. (2015). Piloting yoga and assessing outcomes in a residential behavioural health unit. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22, 199–207.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Mikolajczak, M., Avalosse, H., Vancorenland, S., Verniest, R., Callens, M., van Broeck, N., … Mierop, A. (2015). A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health. Emotion, 15, 653–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mikolajczak, M., & Pena-Sarrionandia, A. (2015, March). On the efficiency of emotional intelligence training in adulthood. Emotion Researcher. Retrieved from http://emotionresearcher.com/on-the-efficiency-of-emotional-intelligence-training-in-adulthood/
  70. Mikolajczak, M., Petrides, K. V., & Hurry, J. (2009). Adolescents choosing self-harm as an emotion regulation strategy: The protective role of trait emotional intelligence. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 181–193.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Newsome, S., Day, A. L., & Catano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 1005–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. O'Connor, R. M., & Little, I. S. (2003). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: Self-report versus ability-based measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1893–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ogińska-Bulik, N. (2005). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its effects on occupational stress and health outcomes in human service workers. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 18, 167–175.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Olatoye, R. A., Akintunde, S. O., & Yakasai, M. I. (2010). Emotional intelligence, creativity and academic achievement of business administration students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8, 763–786.Google Scholar
  75. Parker, J. D. A., Creque, R. E., Barnhart, D. L., Harris, J. I., Majeski, S. A., Wood, L. M., … Hogan, M. J. (2004). Academic achievement in high school: Does emotional intelligence matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1321–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parker, J. D. A., Hogan, M. J., Eastabrook, J. M., Oke, A., & Wood, L. M. (2006). Emotional intelligence and student retention: Predicting the successful transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1329–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Parker, J. D. A., Saklofske D. H., & Keefer K. V. (2016). Giftedness and academic success in college and university: Why emotional intelligence matters. Gifted Education International, online release October 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Parker, J. D. A., Saklofske, D. H., Shaughnessy, P., Huang, S. H. S., Wood, L. M., & Eastabrook, J. M. (2005). Generalizability of the emotional intelligence construct: A cross-cultural study of North American aboriginal youth. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, R. N., Eastabrook, J. M., Schell, S. L., & Wood, L. M. (2008). Problem gambling in adolescence: Relationships with internet misuse, gaming abuse and emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Perera, H. N., & DiGiacomo, M. (2013). The relationship of trait emotional intelligence with academic performance: A meta-analytic review. Learning and Individual Differences, 28, 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Perera, H. N., & DiGiacomo, M. (2015). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance during the university transition: An integrative model of mediation via social support, coping, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pérez, N., & Castejón, J. L. (2005). Diferencias en el perfil de inteligencia emocional en estudiantes universitarios de distintas titulaciones [Differences in the emotional intelligence profile in university students from different degrees]. In J. Romay & R. García (Eds.), Psicología de las Organizaciones, del Trabajo y Recursos Humanos y de la Salud [psychology of organizations, employment, human resources and health]. Biblioteca Nueva: Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
  84. Pérez-González, J. C., & Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J. (2014). Trait emotional intelligence anchored within the Big Five, Big Two and Big One frameworks. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Petrides, K. V. (2001). A psychometric investigation into the construct of emotional intelligence. Doctoral dissertation: University College London.Google Scholar
  86. Petrides, K. V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. Parker (Eds.), Advances in the assessment of emotional intelligence. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-88370-0_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Petrides, K. V. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 136–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Petrides, K. V., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2005). Explaining individual differences in scholastic behaviour and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 239–255.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 273–289.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, Y., Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2006). Trait emotional intelligence and children’s peer relations at school. Social Development, 15, 537–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Polan, J. C., Sieving, R. E., & McMorris, B. J. (2013). Are young adolescents’ social and emotional skills protective against involvement in violence and bullying behaviors? Health Promotion Practice, 14, 599–606.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Pope, D., Roper, C., & Qualter, P. (2012). The influence of emotional intelligence on academic progress and achievement in UK university students. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 37, 907–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Por, J., Barriball, L., Fitzpatrick, J., & Roberts, J. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Its relationship to stress, coping, Well-being and professional performance in nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 31, 855–860.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 322–338.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Poropat, A. E. (2011). The Eysenckian personality factors and their correlations with academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 41–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Qualter, P., Gardner, K. J., Pope, D. J., Hutchinson, J. M., & Whiteley, H. E. (2012). Ability emotional intelligence, trait emotional intelligence, and academic success in British secondary schools: A 5year longitudinal study. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Qualter, P., Whiteley, H., Morley, A., & Dudiak, H. (2009). The role of emotional intelligence in the decision to persist with academic studies in HE. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 14, 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Revelle, W., & Scherer, K. R. (2009). Personality and emotion. In D. Sander & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 353–387.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Russo, P. M., Mancini, G., Trombini, E., Baldaro, B., Mavroveli, S., & Petrides, K. V. (2012). Trait emotional intelligence and the big five: A study on Italian children and preadolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 274–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ruttledge, R. A., & Petrides, K. V. (2012). A cognitive-behavioural group approach for adolescents with disruptive behaviour in schools. School Psychology International, 33, 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., El Khoury, J., Saade, G., & Shrikadian, M. (under review). Self-efficacy variables and academic achievement: The role of emotional intelligence. In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Non-cognitive Factors and Educational Attainment. Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  107. Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., Hernández-Torrano, D., Pérez-González, J., Batey, M., & Petrides, K. V. (2011). The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and creativity across subject domains. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 461–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., Mavroveli, S., & Poullis, J. (2013). Trait emotional intelligence and its links to university performance: An examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 658–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., Pérez-González, J. C., & Petrides, K. V. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence profiles of students from different university faculties. Australian Journal of Psychology, 62, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Mastoras, S. M., Beaton, L., & Osborne, S. E. (2012). Relationships of personality, affect, emotional intelligence and coping with student stress and academic success: Different patterns of association for stress and success. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., & Minski, P. S. (2003). Factor structure and validity of a trait emotional intelligence measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 707–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Santesso, L. D., Dana, L. R., Schmidt, L. A., & Segalowitz, S. J. (2006). Frontal electroencephalogram activation asymmetry, emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in 10-year-old children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 36, 311–328.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Schokman, C., Downey, L. A., Lomas, J., Wellham, D., Wheaton, A., Simmons, N., & Stough, C. (2014). Emotional intelligence, victimisation, bullying behaviours and attitudes. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Bhullar, N. (2009). The Assessing Emotions Scale. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schwean, V. L., Saklofske, D. H., Parker, J. D. A., & Kloosterman, P. (2006). Emotional intelligence and gifted children. E-Journal of Applied Psychology: Emotional Intelligence, 2, 30–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shipley, N. L., Jackson, M. J., & Segrest, S. L. (2010). The effects of emotional intelligence, age, work experience, and academic performance. Research in Higher Education Journal, 9, 1–18.Google Scholar
  118. Siegling, A. B., Saklofske, D. H., & Petrides, K. V. (2015). Measures of ability and trait emotional intelligence. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological constructs. San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386915-9.00014-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Siegling, A. B., Vesely, A. K., Saklofske, D. H., Frederickson, N., & Petrides, K. V. (2017). Incremental validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire–Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue–ASF). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sjoberg, L. (2001). Emotional intelligence: A psychometric analysis. European Psychologist, 6, 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Song, L. J., Huang, G.-H., Peng, K. Z., Law, K. S., Wong, C. S., & Chen, Z. (2010). The differential effects of general mental ability and emotional intelligence on academic performance and social interactions. Intelligence, 38, 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Suliman, W. A. (2010). The relationship between learning styles, emotional social intelligence, and academic success of undergraduate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Research, 18, 136–143.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Van der Linden, D., Pekaar, K., Bakker, A. B., Aitken Schermer, J., Vernon, P. A., & Petrides, K. V. (2016). Overlap between the general factor of personality and emotional intelligence: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 36–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Van der Linden, D., Tsaousis, I., & Petrides, K. V. (2012). Overlap between general factors of personality in the Big Five, Giant Three, and trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 175–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vesely, A. K., Saklofske, D. H., & Leschied, A. D. (2013). Teachers - the vital resource: The contribution of emotional intelligence to teacher efficacy and Well-being. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28, 71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vesely, A. K., Saklofske, D. H., & Nordstokke, D. W. (2014). EI training and pre-service teacher wellbeing. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 81–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. White, R. T., & Arzi, H. J. (2005). Longitudinal studies: Designs, validity, practicality, and value. Research in Science Education, 35, 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Williams, C., Daley, D., Burnside, E., & Hammond-Rowley, S. (2010). Can trait emotional intelligence and objective measures of emotional ability predict psychopathology across the transition to secondary school? Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wood, L. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Keefer, K. V. (2009). Assessing emotional intelligence using the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) and related instruments. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  131. Yazici, H., Seyis, S., & Altun, F. (2011). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of academic achievement among high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2319–2323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yurtsever, G. (2003). Measuring the moral entrepreneurial personality. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. V. Petrides
    • 1
  • Maria-Jose Sanchez-Ruiz
    • 2
  • Alex B. Siegling
    • 3
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 4
  • Stella Mavroveli
    • 5
  1. 1.London Psychometric Laboratory, University College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Lebanese American UniversityBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.University College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  5. 5.Imperial College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations