Advertisement

Leading Change: Developing Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Competencies in Managers During an MBA Program

  • Richard E. Boyatzis
  • Kevin V. Cavanagh
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

A number of social, emotional, and cognitive competencies have been shown to predict management, professional, and leadership effectiveness. Can these competencies be developed through graduate management education? This chapter provides an update on the 25-year empirical investigation conducted at the Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, to explore patterns and sustainability of competency development in a full-time MBA program before and after it was enriched with the Leadership Assessment and Development (LEAD) course. Comparisons of MBA students’ self- and other-rated competency assessments at graduation with the same assessments conducted at the time of entry into the program were examined in cohorts from 1987 to 1990 (pre-LEAD) and 1990 through to 2013 (post-LEAD), the last 5 years of which have never been published. In addition to updating and extending the findings of prior publications of this research program, this chapter aimed to open the discussion on the emotional and social competencies which have been shown not to improve over time and to offer suggestions for management educators around the world.

Keywords

Competency development Emotional and social intelligence Outcome assessment MBA Intentional Change Theory Longitudinal study 

References

  1. Alexander, C. N., Druker, S. M., & Langer, E. J. (1990). Introduction: Major issues in the exploration of adult growth. In C. N. Alexander & E. J. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development (pp. 3–34). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amdurer, E., Boyatzis, R. E., Saatcioglu, A., Smith, M. L., & Taylor, S. N. (2014). Long term impact of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies and GMAT on career and life satisfaction and career success. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashkanasy, N. M., & Daus, C. S. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are vastly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 441–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-health Systems.Google Scholar
  5. Beaubien, J. M., & Payne, S. C. (1999). Individual goal orientation as a predictor of job and academic performance: A meta-analytic review and integration. In 14th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA (Vol. 20).Google Scholar
  6. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for taking charge. New York, NY: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  7. Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope and compassion. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  8. Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Boyatzis R. E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning through the managerial assessment and development course. Journal of Management Education 18(3), 304–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyatzis R. E. (2008). Leadership development from a complexity perspective. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 60(4), 298–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). Competencies as a behavioral approach to emotional intelligence. Journal of Management Development, 28, 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyatzis, R. E., & Akrivou, K. (2006). The ideal self as the driver of intentional change. Journal of Management Development, 25(7), 624–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyatzis, R. E., Baker, A., Leonard, D., Rhee, K., & Thompson, L. (1995). Will it make a difference? Assessing a value-based, outcome oriented, competency based professional program. In R. E. Boyatzis, S. S. Cowen, & D. A. Kolb (Eds.), Innovating in professional education: Steps on a journey from teaching to learning (pp. 167–202). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Boyatzis, R. E., & Goleman, D. (2007). Emotional and Social Competency Inventory – University Edition workbook. Boston, MA: The Hay Group.Google Scholar
  15. Boyatzis, R. E., Leonard, D., Rhee, K., & Wheeler, J. V. (1996). Competencies can be developed, but not the way we thought. Capability, 2(2), 25–41.Google Scholar
  16. Boyatzis, R. E., Lingham, T., & Passarelli, A. (2010). Inspiring the development of emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in managers. In M. G. Rothstein & R. J. Burke (Eds.), Self-management and leadership development (pp. 62–90). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Boyatzis, R. E., Massa, R., & Good, D. (2012). Emotional, social and cognitive intelligence as predictors of sales leadership performance. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 19, 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyatzis, R. E., Passarelli, A., & Wei, H. (2013, January). A study of developing emotional, social, and cognitive competencies in 16 cohorts of an MBA program. Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2013, No. 1, p. 14887). Academy of Management.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boyatzis, R. E., Rochford, K., & Jack, A. I. (2014). Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boyatzis, R. E., & Saatcioglu, A. (2008). A twenty-year view of trying to develop emotional, social and cognitive intelligence competencies in graduate management education. Journal of Management Development, 27(3), 92–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boyatzis, R. E., & Sala, F. (2004). Assessing emotional intelligence competencies. In G. Geher (Ed.), The measurement of emotional intelligence (pp. 147–180). Hauppauge, NY: Novas Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Boyatzis, R. E., & Sokol, M. (1982). A pilot project to assess the feasibility of assessing skills and personal characteristics of students in collegiate business programs. Report to the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  23. Boyatzis, R. E., Stubbs, E. C., & Taylor, S. N. (2002). Learning cognitive and emotional intelligence competencies through graduate management education. Academy of Management Journal on Learning and Education, 1(2), 150–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campbell, J. P., Dunnette, M. D., Lawler, E. E., III, & Weick, K. E. (1970). Managerial behavior, performance, and effectiveness. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  25. Carmeli, A., Yitzhak-Halevy, M., & Weisberg, J. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Management Psychology, 24, 66–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carnevale, A. P., Strohl, J., & Melton, M. (2011). What’s it worth? The economic value of college majors. Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Retrieved from http://cew.george-town.edu/whatsitworth/.
  27. Carter, C., Macdonald, A., Ursu, S., Stenger, A., Ho Sohn, M., & Anderson, J. (2000). How the brain gets ready to perform. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  28. Chen, G., Gully, S. M., Whiteman, J. A., & Kilcullen, R. N. (2000). Examination of relationships among traitlike individual differences, statelike individual differences, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 835–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Towards clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 110–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cherniss, C., & Adler, M. (2000). Promoting emotional intelligence in organizations. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.Google Scholar
  31. Cherniss, C., & Boyatzis, R. E. (2013). Using a multi-level theory of performance based on emotional intelligence to conceptualize and develop “soft” leader skills. In R. Riggio & S. Tan (Eds.), Building interpersonal skills in management programs (pp. 53–72). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  32. Côté, S., & Miners, C. T. H. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Los Reyes, A., Thomas, S. A., Goodman, K. L., & Kundey, S. M. (2013). Principles underlying the use of multiple informants’ reports. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 123–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York, NY: The Kappa Delta Pi Lecture Series, Collier Books.Google Scholar
  35. Druskat, V., Mount, G., & Sala, F. (Eds.). (2005). Emotional intelligence and work performance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Extremera, N. (2006). Emotional intelligence: A theoretical and empirical review of its first 15 years of history. Psycotema, 18, 7–12.Google Scholar
  37. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam.Google Scholar
  38. Goleman, D. (2006). Social intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam.Google Scholar
  39. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  40. Harms, P. D., & Credé, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(1), 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heslin, P. A. (2005). Conceptualizing and evaluating career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 113–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jack, A., Boyatzis, R. E., Khawaja, M., Passarelli, A. M., & Leckie, R. (2013). Visioning in the brain: An fMRI study of inspirational coaching and mentoring. Social Neuroscience, 8, 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jack, A. I., Dawson, A., Begany, K., Leckie, R. L., Barry, K., & Ciccia, A. (2012). fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains. Neuroimage, 66C, 385–401.Google Scholar
  44. Joseph, D., Jin, J., Newman, D., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2015). Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 298–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 54–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Keefer, K. V. (2015). Self-report assessments of emotional competencies: A critical look at methods and meanings. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Learning styles inventory. Boston, MA: McBer & Co.Google Scholar
  48. Kolb, D. A., & Boyatzis, R. E. (1970). Goal-setting and self-directed behavior change. Human Relations, 23, 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Loehr, J., & Schwartz, T. (2003). The power of full engagement: Managing energy, not time, is the key to high performance and personal renewal. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  50. Lounsbury, J. W., Loveland, J. M., Sundstrom, E. D., Gibson, L. W., Drost, A. W., & Hamrick, F. L. (2003). An investigation of personality traits in relation to career satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessments, 11, 287–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luthans, F., Hodgetts, R. M., & Rosenkrantz, S. A. (1988). Real managers. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Press.Google Scholar
  52. Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. (2002). Emotional Intelligence: Science & Myth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  53. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.3.1.97 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar
  55. Meister, I., Krings, T., Foltys, H., Boroojerdi, B., Muller, M., Topper, R., & Thron, A. (2004). Playing the piano in the mind—An fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists. Cognitive Brain Research, 19, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2016). Leader emotional intelligence and subordinate job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of main, mediator, and moderator effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017a). A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and work attitudes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(2), 177–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017b). Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., & Halpern, D. F. (2012). Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments. American Psychologist, 67, 130–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. O’Boyle, E. H., Jr., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 788–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method of personality assessment. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  62. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roffe, L., Schmidt, K., & Ernst, E. (2005). A systematic review of guided imagery as an adjuvant cancer therapy. Psychooncology, 14, 607–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sánchez-Álvarez, N., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), 276–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Bhullar, N. (2009). The Assessing Emotions Scale. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  67. Sheldon, O. J., Dunning, D., & Ames, D. R. (2014). Emotionally unskilled, unaware, and uninterested in learning more: Reactions to feedback about deficits in emotional intelligence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Specht, L., & Sandlin, P. (1991). The differential effects of experiential learning activities and traditional lecture classes in accounting. Simulations and Gaming, 22(2), 196–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stough, C., Saklofske, D. H., & Parker, J. D. A. (2009). A brief analysis of 20 years of emotional intelligence: An introduction to assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 3–8). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-88370-0_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wheeler, J. V. (2008). The impact of social environments on emotional, social, and cognitive competency development. Journal of Management Development, 27, 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations