Three Decades of Emotional Intelligence Research: Perennial Issues, Emerging Trends, and Lessons Learned in Education: Introduction to Emotional Intelligence in Education

  • Kateryna V. KeeferEmail author
  • James D. A. Parker
  • Donald H. Saklofske
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)


Education is one of the largest applied areas for the construct of emotional intelligence (EI). The emphasis on social-emotional learning (SEL) is rapidly growing at all levels of the education delivery system, from preschool and secondary school curricula to post-secondary, professional, and continuing education programs. The book Emotional Intelligence in Education brings together leading world experts in the fields of EI and SEL to highlight current knowledge, new opportunities, and outstanding challenges associated with scientifically based applications of EI in education. In this introductory chapter to the book, we take stock of almost three decades of EI research, addressing three common concerns: (1) that EI is nothing more than old wine in new bottles, (2) that EI is poorly defined and measured, and (3) that claims about the importance of EI for various life success outcomes are dramatically overblown. We also highlight a number of new and emerging trends that point to the increasing maturity of the EI field as an area of study. Having taken the pulse of the chapters comprising the book, we propose that the field of EI would benefit from paying greater attention to the social context within which EI operates.


Emotional intelligence Trait EI Ability EI Social and emotional learning Education Construct validity Assessment Criterion validity 


  1. Ackerman, P. L. (2017). Adult intelligence: The construct and the criterion problem. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(6), 987–998.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessandri, G., Vecchione, M., & Caprara, G. V. (2015). Assessment of regulatory emotional self-efficacy beliefs: A review of the status of the art and some suggestions to move the field forward. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrei, F., Siegling, A. B., Aloe, A. M., Baldaro, B., & Petrides, K. V. (2016). The incremental validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 261–276.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Antonakis, J. (2004). On why “emotional intelligence” will not predict leadership effectiveness beyond IQ or the “big five”: An extension and rejoinder. Organizational Analysis, 12, 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Dasborough, M. T. (2009). Does leadership need emotional intelligence? The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antonakis, J., & Dietz, J. (2010). Emotional intelligence: On definitions, neuroscience, and marshmallows. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3(2), 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Austin, E. J., Parker, J. D. A., Petrides, K. V., & Saklofske, D. H. (2008). Emotional intelligence. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment (Vol. 1, pp. 576–596). London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
  9. Bar-On, R. (1997). BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  10. Belfield, C., Bowden, A. B., Klapp, A., Levin, H., Shand, R., & Zander, S. (2015). The economic value of social and emotional learning. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 6(03), 508–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). Competencies as a behavioral approach to emotional intelligence. Journal of Management Development, 28, 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147–1158.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Brasseur, S., Grégoire, J., Bourdu, R., & Mikolajczak, M. (2013). The Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC): Development and validation of a self-reported measure that fits dimensions of emotional competence theory. PLoS One, 8(5), e62635.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brody, N. (2004). What cognitive intelligence is and what emotional intelligence is not. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 234–238.Google Scholar
  15. Caprara, G. V., Di Giunta, L., Eisenberg, N., Gerbino, M., Pastorelli, C., & Tramontano, C. (2008). Assessing regulatory emotional self-efficacy in three countries. Psychological Assessment, 20, 227–237.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caprara, G. V., Di Giunta, L., Pastorelli, C., & Eisenberg, N. (2013). Mastery of negative affect: A hierarchical model of emotional self-efficacy beliefs. Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 105.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Cattell, R. B. (1987). Abilities: Their structure, growth and action. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland.Google Scholar
  18. Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 110–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Danziger, K. (1994). Constructing the subject: Historical origins of psychological research. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Day, A. L., & Carroll, S. A. (2008). Faking emotional intelligence (EI): Comparing response distortion on ability and trait‐based EI measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(6), 761–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunning, D., Heath, C., & Suls, J. M. (2004). Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, education, and the workplace. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5, 69–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durlak, J. A. (2009). How to select, calculate, and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(9), 917–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C., Weissberg, R. P., & Gullotta, T. P. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of social and emotional learning (SEL): Research and practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  26. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Extremera, N. (2006). Emotional intelligence: A theoretical and empirical review of its first 15 years of history. Psicothema, 18, 1–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Fiori, M., & Antonakis, J. (2012). Selective attention to emotional stimuli: What IQ and openness do, and emotional intelligence does not. Intelligence, 40, 245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fisher, C. D., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2000). The emerging role of emotions in work life: An introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flanagan, D. P., & Harrison, P. L. (2012). Contemporary intellectual assessment. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Freund, P. A., & Kasten, N. (2012). How smart do you think you are? A meta-analysis on the validity of self-estimates of cognitive ability. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 296–321.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  33. Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. B. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of resilience in children. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Greenspan, S. I. (1989). Emotional Intelligence. In K. Field, B. J. Cohler, & G. Wool (Eds.), Learning and education: Psychoanalytic perspectives (pp. 209–243). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gross, A. G. (1998). Do disputes over priority tell us anything about science? Science in Context, 11, 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gross, J. J. (Ed.). (2014). Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Grubb, W. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2007). The fakability of Bar-On’s Emotional Quotient Inventory Short Form: Catch me if you can. Human Performance, 20(1), 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hughes, D. J., & Evans, T. R. (2016). Comment: Trait EI moderates the relationship between ability EI and emotion regulation. Emotion Review, 8(4), 331–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hurtz, G. M., & Donovan, J. J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The Big Five revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(6), 869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Izard, C. E. (2001). Emotional intelligence or adaptive emotions? Emotion, 1, 249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—Self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—With job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, J. C. (2001). Emotional intelligence as an aspect of general intelligence: What would David Wechsler say? Emotion, 1, 258–264.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Keefer, K. V. (2015). Self-report assessments of emotional competencies: A critical look at methods and meanings. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keefer, K. V., Holden, R. R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2013). Longitudinal assessment of trait emotional intelligence: Measurement invariance and construct continuity from late childhood to adolescence. Psychological Assessment, 25, 1255–1272.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Keefer, K. V., Parker, J. D., & Wood, L. M. (2012). Trait emotional intelligence and university graduation outcomes: Using latent profile analysis to identify students at risk for degree non-completion. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 402–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kirk, B. A., Schutte, N. S., & Hine, D. W. (2008). Development and preliminary validation of an emotional self-efficacy scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 432–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Landy, F. J. (2006). The long, frustrating, and fruitless search for social intelligence: A cautionary tale. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 81–123). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  48. Leuner, B. (1966). Emotionale intelligenz und emanzipation. [Emotional intelligence and emancipation.]. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatry, 15, 196–203.Google Scholar
  49. Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  50. MacCann, C., Joseph, D. L., Newman, D. A., & Roberts, R. D. (2014). Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of intelligence: Evidence from hierarchical and bifactor models. Emotion, 14, 358–374.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Malouff, J. M., Schutte, N. S., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2014). Trait emotional intelligence and romantic relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 42, 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(6), 554–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Roberts, R. D., & Zeidner, M. (2006). What is this thing called emotional intelligence? In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 3–36). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  54. Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled? Japanese Psychological Research, 54, 105–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2016). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion Review, 8(4), 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) user’s manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  59. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCleskey, J. (2014). Emotional intelligence and leadership: A review of the progress, controversy, and criticism. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22, 76–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 2, 175–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mestre, J. M., MacCann, C., Guil, R., & Roberts, R. D. (2016). Models of cognitive ability and emotion can better inform contemporary emotional intelligence frameworks. Emotion Review, 8(4), 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mikolajczak, M. (2009). Moving beyond the ability-trait debate: A three level model of emotional intelligence. Electronic Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 25–31.Google Scholar
  64. Mikolajczak, M., Avalosse, H., Vancorenland, S., Verniest, R., Callens, M., Van Broeck, N., & Mierop, A. (2015). A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health. Emotion, 15(5), 653–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mikolajczak, M., & Van Bellegem, S. (2017). Increasing emotional intelligence to decrease healthcare expenditures: How profitable would it be? Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 343–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moss, F. A., Hunt, T., Oniwake, K. T., & Ronning, M. M. (1927). Social intelligence test. Washington, D. C: George Washington University.Google Scholar
  67. ​Murphy, K. R. (Ed.). (2006). A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  68. Newsome, S., Day, A. L., & Catano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 1005–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. O’Boyle, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 788–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. O’Connor, R. M., & Little, I. S. (2003). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence: Self-report versus ability-based measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1893–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parker, J. D. A. (2000). Emotional intelligence: Clinical and therapeutic implications. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 490–504). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  72. Parker, J. D. A., Keefer, K. V., & Wood, L. M. (2011). Toward a brief multidimensional assessment of emotional intelligence: Psychometric properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form. Psychological Assessment, 23, 762–777.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (Eds.). (2014). International handbook of emotions in education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Perera, H. N., & DiGiacomo, M. (2013). The relationship of trait emotional intelligence with academic performance: A meta-analytic review. Learning and Individual Differences, 28, 20–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pérez, J. C., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2005). Measuring trait emotional intelligence. In R. Schulze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), International handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 123–143). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  76. Petrides, K. V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. Parker (Eds.), Advances in the assessment of emotional intelligence. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  77. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Petrides, K. V. (2011). Ability and trait emotional intelligence. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of individual differences (pp. 656–678). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  80. Petrides, K. V., Mikolajczak, M., Mavroveli, S., Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., Furnham, A., & Pérez-González, J. C. (2016). Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion Review, 8, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 273–289.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Pfeiffer, S. I. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Popular but elusive construct. Roeper Review, 23, 138–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Poropat, A. E. (2009). A meta-analysis of the five-factor model of personality and academic performance. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 322.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts, R. D., MacCann, C., Guil, R., & Mestre, J. M. (2016). Reimagining emotional intelligence: A healthy, much needed, and important progression for the field. Emotion Review, 8(4), 334–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for an intelligence? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1, 196–231.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Salguero, J. M., Extremera, N., Cabello, R., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2015). If you have high emotional intelligence (EI), you must trust in your abilities: The interaction effect of ability EI and perceived EI on depression in women. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33, 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sánchez-Álvarez, N., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), 276–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The association of ability and trait emotional intelligence with alcohol problems. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(3), 260–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2012). Priming ability emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 40, 614–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sifneos, P. E. (1973). The prevalence of ‘alexithymic’ characteristics in psychosomatic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22, 255–262.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Sjöberg, L. (2001). Emotional intelligence: A psychometric analysis. European Psychologist, 6, 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, R. (1988). Does the history of psychology have a subject? History of the Human Sciences, 1, 147–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sojourner, R. J. (2012). The rebirth and retooling of character education in America. Washington DC: Character Education Partnership and McGraw Hill Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  96. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Sternberg, R. J. (1999). Successful intelligence: Finding a balance. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 436–442.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Stough, C., Saklofske, D. H., & Parker, J. D. A. (Eds.). (2009). Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  99. Taylor, G. J., Parker, J. D. A., & Bagby, R. M. (1999). Emotional intelligence and the emotional brain: Points of convergence and implications for psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27, 339–354.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Thingujam, N. S. (2002). Emotional intelligence: What is the evidence? Psychological Studies, 47, 54–69.Google Scholar
  101. Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227–235.Google Scholar
  102. Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 71–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2001). Slow down, you move too fast: Emotional intelligence remains an “elusive construct”. Emotion, 1, 265–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2002). Can emotional intelligence be schooled? A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 37, 215–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., & Matthews, G. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, 13, 64–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zeidner, M., Shani-Zinovich, I., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2005). Assessing emotional intelligence in gifted and non-gifted high school students: Outcomes depend on the measure. Intelligence, 33(4), 369–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kateryna V. Keefer
    • 1
    Email author
  • James D. A. Parker
    • 1
  • Donald H. Saklofske
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTrent UniversityPeterboroughCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations