An Example: The Case of Mexico
This chapter examines the case of Mexico, using historical data as well as original survey data. Broader political participation was a critical factor in expanding access to education in Mexico—but this was at play during the 1920s and 1930s, long before democratization. Modernization also played a role in decreasing education inequality, economic growth, and increasing returns to education, with an increase in physical access to schools playing a smaller role. Finally, globalization seems to have decreased education inequality in Mexico. Opening up to trade led Mexico to increase production of labor-intensive manufactures. This shift to labor-intensive production was accompanied by an increase in the skill premium, and Mexicans strove to increase their educational attainment in order to compete for better-paying jobs in export sectors.
- Campos-Vázquez, R., & Rodríguez-López, J. (2011). Trade and occupational employment in Mexico since NAFTA. OECD Trade Policy Working Papers, No. 129. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/5kg3nh5q7p5k-en.
- Canedo, Ana. (2016, March 10). Mexico’s Education Reform: What Went Wrong? Georgetown Public Policy Review.Google Scholar
- Dresser, D. (1991). Neopopulist solutions to neoliberal problems. San Diego: Center for US Mexican Studies University of California.Google Scholar
- Engerman, S. L., & Sokoloff, K. L. (2002). Factor endowments, inequality, and paths of development among new world economics (No. w9259). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Engerman, S. L., & Sokoloff, K. L. (2005). Colonialism, inequality, and long-run paths of development (No. w11057). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Hanson, G. H. (2003). What has happened to wages in Mexico since NAFTA? (No. w9563). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
- Louie, M. C. Y. (2001). Sweatshop warriors: Immigrant women workers take on the global factory. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
- Navarro Chávez, J. C. L., & Favila Tello, A. (2013). La desigualdad de la educación en México, 1990–2010: el caso de las entidades federativas. Revista electrónica de investigación educativa, 15(2), 21–33.Google Scholar
- Rodríguez-Pose, A., & Sánchez-Reaza, J. (2005). Economic polarization through trade: Trade liberalization and regional growth in Mexico. In Spatial inequality and development (pp. 237–259). Oxford: OUP Oxford.Google Scholar
- Sánchez, G. I. (1944). The development of higher education in Mexico. New York: King’s crown Press.Google Scholar
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. www.uis.unesco.org.
- UNESCO World Inequality Database on Education. http://www.education-inequalities.org/countries/mexico#?dimension=region&group=all&year=latest.
- Vaughan, M. K. (1982). The state, education, and social class in Mexico, 1880–1928. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
- Vietor, R. H., & Veytsman, A. (2005). American outsourcing. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar