Inequality in Learning Outcomes
This chapter turns to inequality in learning outcomes, as measured by within-country dispersion in standardized test scores. Torpey-Saboe finds that the relationship between globalization and education inequality is consistent whether inequality is measured in years of education or test score achievement. Labor-abundant countries open to trade have lower education inequality than other types of economies. The relationships between modernization and inequality and political regime and inequality are not consistent with the findings in Chap. 5 on access to education, however. While modernization is associated with lower inequality in years of education, it is associated with higher inequality in terms of learning outcomes. Also, the author finds that in countries with high levels of income inequality, democracy is associated with greater disparities in learning outcomes. Several examples from different countries, including Chile and former Soviet bloc countries are discussed.
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