The Prevention and Treatment of Adolescent Stimulant and Methamphetamine Use

  • Justin C. Strickland
  • William W. StoopsEmail author
Part of the Issues in Children's and Families' Lives book series (IICL)


Stimulant (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine) misuse poses a significant public health concern for adolescents given the potential impact on developmental trajectories during a period of dramatic physiological and psychological growth. High-risk behaviors already prominent in adolescents, such as violence, aggression, and unprotected sexual encounters, are also likely to increase following illicit stimulant use. This chapter provides an overview of the current primary prevention and treatment approaches targeting adolescent stimulant misuse. The history and characteristics of stimulant use and misuse, the pharmacology and clinical effects of stimulants, and expected clinical outcomes for stimulant-using adolescents are also provided. A review of the extant literature indicates that stimulant use has received little attention in the primary prevention and treatment literature when compared to adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. Those studies that do exist suggest that many of those prevention and treatment efforts developed for other substance use may help deter the initiation and reduce the misuse of stimulants in adolescents. Clinically useful prevention and treatment for adolescent stimulant use will likely require multiple approaches tailored to the patient and address factors at the level of the individual, peer, family, and community. More work is needed, however, to develop and test novel evidence-based methods for preventing and treating adolescent stimulant use disorder.


Addiction ADHD Amphetamine Cocaine Family Methamphetamine Pharmacotherapy Stimulant 


  1. Aktan, G. B., Kumpfer, K. L., & Turner, C. W. (1996). Effectiveness of a family skills training program for substance use prevention with inner city African-American families. Substance Use & Misuse, 31(2), 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, J. F., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy: Principles and procedures. Carmel, CA: Brooks/Cole.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, M., Rothman, R. B., Baumann, M. H., Endres, C. J., Brasic, J. R., & Wong, D. F. (2005). Noradrenergic and dopaminergic effects of (+)-amphetamine-like stimulants in the baboon Papio anubis. Synapse, 56(2), 94–99. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allara, E., Ferri, M., Bo, A., Gasparrini, A., & Faggiano, F. (2015). Are mass-media campaigns effective in preventing drug use? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 5(9), e007449. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, A. L., Li, S. H., Markova, D., Holmes, T. H., Chiang, N., Kahn, R., … Elkashef, A. M. (2015). Bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence in non-daily users: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 150, 170–174. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, D. M. (2010). Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths. Journal of Health Economicsomics, 29(5), 732–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, D. M., & Elsea, D. (2015). The Meth Project and teen meth use: New estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Health Economics, 24(12), 1644–1650. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Angrist, B., Corwin, J., Bartlik, B., & Cooper, T. (1987). Early pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of oral d-amphetamine in normal subjects. Biological Psychiatry, 22(11), 1357–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ary, D. V., Duncan, T. E., Biglan, A., Metzler, C. W., Noell, J. W., & Smolkowski, K. (1999). Development of adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(2), 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Babor, T. F., McRee, B. G., Kassebaum, P. A., Grimaldi, P. L., Ahmed, K., & Bray, J. (2007). Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Toward a public health approach to the management of substance abuse. Substance Abuse, 28(3), 7–30. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldwin, S. A., Christian, S., Berkeljon, A., & Shadish, W. R. (2012). The effects of family therapies for adolescent delinquency and substance abuse: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 281–304. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Belendiuk, K. A., & Riggs, P. (2014). Treatment of adolescent substance use disorders. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 1(2), 175–188. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: A review. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123–142. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Mick, E., Milberger, S., Spencer, T. J., & Faraone, S. V. (1995). Psychoactive substance use disorders in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Effects of ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(11), 1652–1658. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Botello-Harbaum, M. T., Haynie, D. L., Iannotti, R. J., Wang, J., Gase, L., & Simons-Morton, B. (2009). Tobacco control policy and adolescent cigarette smoking status in the United States. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(7), 875–885. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brzeczko, A. W., Leech, R., & Stark, J. G. (2013). The advent of a new pseudoephedrine product to combat methamphetamine abuse. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 39(5), 284–290. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bukstein, O. (2008). Substance abuse in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Medscape Journal of Medicine, 10(1), 24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Callaghan, R., Taylor, L., Victor, J. C., & Lentz, T. (2007). A case-matched comparison of readmission patterns between primary methamphetamine-using and primary cocaine-using adolescents engaged in inpatient substance-abuse treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 32(12), 3101–3106. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Callaghan, R. C., Brands, B., Taylor, L., & Lentz, T. (2007). The clinical characteristics of adolescents reporting methamphetamine as their primary drug of choice: An examination of youth admitted to inpatient substance-abuse treatment in northern British Columbia, Canada, 2001–2005. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(3), 286–289. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carney, T., Myers, B. J., Louw, J., & Okwundu, C. I. (2016). Brief school-based interventions and behavioural outcomes for substance-using adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2016(1), 1–63. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carroll, K. M., & Onken, L. S. (2005). Behavioral therapies for drug abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(8), 1452–1460. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Catalano, R. F., Gainey, R. R., Fleming, C. B., Haggerty, K. P., & Johnson, N. O. (1999). An experimental intervention with families of substance abusers: one-year follow-up of the focus on families project. Addiction, 94(2), 241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cavazos-Rehg, P. A., Spitznagel, E. L., Schootman, M., Strickland, J. R., Afful, S. E., Cottler, L. B., & Bierut, L. J. (2009). Risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases: a comparison study of cocaine-dependent individuals in treatment versus a community-matched sample. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 23(9), 727–734. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Retrieved from
  25. Clayton, R. R., Cattarello, A. M., & Johnstone, B. M. (1996). The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive Medicine, 25(3), 307–318. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Comer, S. D., Hart, C. L., Ward, A. S., Haney, M., Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (2001). Effects of repeated oral methamphetamine administration in humans. Psychopharmacology, 155(4), 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crowley, T. J., & Riggs, P. D. (1995). Adolescent substance use disorder with conduct disorder and comorbid conditions. NIDA Research Monographs, 156, 49–111.Google Scholar
  28. Cruickshank, C. C., & Dyer, K. R. (2009). A review of the clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine. Addiction, 104(7), 1085–1099. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cunningham, K. A., & Anastasio, N. C. (2014). Serotonin at the nexus of impulsivity and cue reactivity in cocaine addiction. Neuropharmacology, 76(Pt. B), 460–478. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cunningham, S., Finlay, K., & Stoecker, C. (2015). Is Mississippi’s prescription-only precursor control law a prescription to decrease the production and raise the price of methamphetamine? International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(11), 1144–1149. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dembo, R., Wothke, W., Livingston, S., & Schmeidler, J. (2002). The impact of a family empowerment intervention on juvenile offender heavy drinking: A latent growth model analysis. Substance Use & Misuse, 37(11), 1359–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DiFranza, J. R., Savageau, J. A., & Fletcher, K. E. (2009). Enforcement of underage sales laws as a predictor of daily smoking among adolescents: A national study. BMC Public Health, 9, 107. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Drent, M., Wijnen, P., & Bast, A. (2012). Interstitial lung damage due to cocaine abuse: Pathogenesis, pharmacogenomics and therapy. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 19(33), 5607–5611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S. L., Leyro, T. M., Powers, M. B., & Otto, M. W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(2), 179–187. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dutta, S., Morton, J., Shepard, E., Peebles, R., Farrales-Nguyen, S., Hammer, L. D., & Albanese, C. T. (2006). Methamphetamine use following bariatric surgery in an adolescent. Obesity Surgery, 16(6), 780–782. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Elkashef, A. M., Rawson, R. A., Anderson, A. L., Li, S. H., Holmes, T., Smith, E. V., … Weis, D. (2008). Bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(5), 1162–1170. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Elliott, J. M., & Beveridge, T. J. (2005). Psychostimulants and monoamine transporters: Upsetting the balance. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 5(1), 94–100. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Erceg-Hurn, D. M. (2008). Drugs, money, and graphic ads: A critical review of the Montana Meth Project. Prevention Science, 9(4), 256–263. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Faggiano, F., Minozzi, S., Versino, E., & Buscemi, D. (2014). Universal school-based prevention for illicit drug use. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2014(12), 1–137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farronato, N. S., Dursteler-Macfarland, K. M., Wiesbeck, G. A., & Petitjean, S. A. (2013). A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 32(3), 274–287. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ferri, M., Allara, E., Bo, A., Gasparrini, A., & Faggiano, F. (2013). Media campaigns for the prevention of illicit drug use in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(6), 1–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Foley, K. F., DeSanty, K. P., & Kast, R. E. (2006). Bupropion: Pharmacology and therapeutic applications. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 6(9), 1249–1265. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (1990). The relationship between cocaine venous blood levels and the cardiovascular and subjective effects of smoked and intravenous cocaine. NIDA Research Monographs, 105, 440–441.Google Scholar
  44. Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (1991). Smoked and intravenous cocaine in humans: Acute tolerance, cardiovascular and subjective effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 257(1), 247–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Foltin, R. W., Fischman, M. W., Pedroso, J. J., & Pearlson, G. D. (1988). Repeated intranasal cocaine administration: Lack of tolerance to pressor effects. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 22(3), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garnier, L. M., Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O'Grady, K. E., & Wish, E. D. (2010). Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(3), 262–269. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gawin, F. H. (1991). Cocaine addiction: Psychology and neurophysiology. Science, 251(5001), 1580–1586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gawin, F. H., & Kleber, H. D. (1985). Neuroendocrine findings in a chronic cocaine abusers: A preliminary report. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147(5), 569–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glauser, J., & Queen, J. R. (2007). An overview of non-cardiac cocaine toxicity. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 32(2), 181–186. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Godley, M. D., Godley, S. H., Dennis, M. L., Funk, R., & Passetti, L. L. (2002). Preliminary outcomes from the assertive continuing care experiment for adolescents discharged from residential treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23(1), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gorman, D. M. (2014). Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(4), 217–232. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gossop, M. R., Bradley, B. P., & Brewis, R. K. (1982). Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 10(2–3), 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grinspoon, L., & Bakalar, J. B. (1981). Coca and cocaine as medicines: An historical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 3(2–3), 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Haggerty, K. P., Skinner, M., Fleming, C. B., Gainey, R. R., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Long-term effects of the Focus on Families project on substance use disorders among children of parents in methadone treatment. Addiction, 103(12), 2008–2016. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris, D. S., Boxenbaum, H., Everhart, E. T., Sequeira, G., Mendelson, J. E., & Jones, R. T. (2003). The bioavailability of intranasal and smoked methamphetamine. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 74(5), 475–486. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hart, C. L., Gunderson, E. W., Perez, A., Kirkpatrick, M. G., Thurmond, A., Comer, S. D., & Foltin, R. W. (2008). Acute physiological and behavioral effects of intranasal methamphetamine in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(8), 1847–1855. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hart, C. L., Ward, A. S., Haney, M., Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (2001). Methamphetamine self-administration by humans. Psychopharmacology, 157(1), 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Havakuk, O., Rezkalla, S. H., & Kloner, R. A. (2017). The cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(1), 101–113. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Heal, D. J., Gosden, J., & Smith, S. L. (2014). Dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) “inverse agonism”—a novel hypothesis to explain the enigmatic pharmacology of cocaine. Neuropharmacology, 87, 19–40. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Heinzerling, K. G., Gadzhyan, J., van Oudheusden, H., Rodriguez, F., McCracken, J., & Shoptaw, S. (2013). Pilot randomized trial of bupropion for adolescent methamphetamine abuse/dependence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(4), 502–505. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Higgins, S. T., & Petry, N. M. (1999). Contingency management. Incentives for sobriety. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 122–127.Google Scholar
  62. Hornik, R. (2006). Personal influence and the effects of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 608, 282–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Howell, L. L., & Cunningham, K. A. (2015). Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor interactions with dopamine function: Implications for therapeutics in cocaine use disorder. Pharmacological Reviews, 67(1), 176–197. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Howell, L. L., & Negus, S. S. (2014). Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse. Advances in Pharmacology, 69, 129–176. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Isenschmid, D. S., Fischman, M. W., Foltin, R. W., & Caplan, Y. H. (1992). Concentration of cocaine and metabolites in plasma of humans following intravenous administration and smoking of cocaine. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 16(5), 311–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jeffcoat, A. R., Perez-Reyes, M., Hill, J. M., Sadler, B. M., & Cook, C. E. (1989). Cocaine disposition in humans after intravenous injection, nasal insufflation (snorting), or smoking. Drug Metabolism & Disposition, 17(2), 153–159.Google Scholar
  67. Jensen, C. D., Cushing, C. C., Aylward, B. S., Craig, J. T., Sorell, D. M., & Steele, R. G. (2011). Effectiveness of motivational interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(4), 433–440. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson, C. A., Pentz, M. A., Weber, M. D., Dwyer, J. H., Baer, N., MacKinnon, D. P., … Flay, B. R. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 447–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2017). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2016: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  71. Kerr, T., Small, W., & Wood, E. (2005). The public health and social impacts of drug market enforcement: A review of the evidence. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16(4), 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kirkpatrick, M. G., Gunderson, E. W., Johanson, C. E., Levin, F. R., Foltin, R. W., & Hart, C. L. (2012). Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans. Addiction, 107(4), 783–791. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Knight, J. R., Sherritt, L., Harris, S. K., Gates, E. C., & Chang, G. (2003). Validity of brief alcohol screening tests among adolescents: A comparison of the AUDIT, POSIT, CAGE, and CRAFFT. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(1), 67–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Knight, J. R., Sherritt, L., Shrier, L. A., Harris, S. K., & Chang, G. (2002). Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(6), 607–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Knight, J. R., Shrier, L. A., Bravender, T. D., Farrell, M., Vander Bilt, J., & Shaffer, H. J. (1999). A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153(6), 591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. O. (2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11–13), 1759–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lee, N. K., & Rawson, R. A. (2008). A systematic review of cognitive and behavioural therapies for methamphetamine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(3), 309–317. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Lewit, E. M., Hyland, A., Kerrebrock, N., & Cummings, K. M. (1997). Price, public policy, and smoking in young people. Tobacco Control, 6(Suppl 2), S17–S24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. E., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2009). Multidimensional family therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12–25. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lindstrom, M., Filges, T., & Jorgensen, A. M. K. (2015). Brief strategic family therapy for young people in treatment for drug use. Research on Social Work Practice, 25(1), 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lott, D. C., & Jencius, S. (2009). Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 102(1–3), 162–165. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lynam, D. R., Milich, R., Zimmerman, R., Novak, S. P., Logan, T. K., Martin, C., … Clayton, R. (1999). Project DARE: No effects at 10-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(4), 590–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lyoo, I. K., Yoon, S., Kim, T. S., Lim, S. M., Choi, Y., Kim, J. E., … Renshaw, P. F. (2015). Predisposition to and effects of methamphetamine use on the adolescent brain. Molecular Psychiatry, 20(12), 1516–1524. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Madras, B. K., Compton, W. M., Avula, D., Stegbauer, T., Stein, J. B., & Clark, H. W. (2009). Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and 6 months later. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99(1–3), 280–295. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Marks, K. R., Lile, J. A., Stoops, W. W., Glaser, P. E., Hays, L. R., & Rush, C. R. (2016). Separate and combined effects of naltrexone and extended-release alprazolam on the reinforcing, subject-rated, and cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 36(3), 213–221. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Marsden, J., Stillwell, G., Barlow, H., Boys, A., Taylor, C., Hunt, N., & Farrell, M. (2006). An evaluation of a brief motivational intervention among young ecstasy and cocaine users: No effect on substance and alcohol use outcomes. Addiction, 101(7), 1014–1026. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Marsh, W., Copes, H., & Linnemann, T. (2017). Creating visual differences: Methamphetamine users perceptions of anti-meth campaigns. International Journal of Drug Policy, 39, 52–61. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McCabe, S. E., Teter, C. J., & Boyd, C. J. (2004). The use, misuse and diversion of prescription stimulants among middle and high school students. Substance Use & Misuse, 39(7), 1095–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McCabe, S. E., West, B. T., Teter, C. J., & Boyd, C. J. (2014). Trends in medical use, diversion, and nonmedical use of prescription medications among college students from 2003 to 2013: Connecting the dots. Addictive Behaviors, 39(7), 1176–1182. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. McCabe, S. E., West, B. T., Teter, C. J., Cranford, J. A., Ross-Durow, P. L., & Boyd, C. J. (2012). Adolescent nonmedical users of prescription opioids: Brief screening and substance use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 37(5), 651–656. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. McCartt, A. T., Hellinga, L. A., & Kirley, B. B. (2010). The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States. Journal of Safety Research, 41(2), 173–181. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. McGregor, C., Srisurapanont, M., Jittiwutikarn, J., Laobhripatr, S., Wongtan, T., & White, J. M. (2005). The nature, time course and severity of methamphetamine withdrawal. Addiction, 100(9), 1320–1329. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Mendelson, J., Uemura, N., Harris, D., Nath, R. P., Fernandez, E., Jacob, P., 3rd, … Jones, R. T. (2006). Human pharmacology of the methamphetamine stereoisomers. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 80(4), 403–420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  95. Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., Gonzales, A., Moseley, A., Peterson, T., O'Grady, K. E., & Schwartz, R. P. (2012). Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for substance use in a school-based program: Services and outcomes. The American Journal on Addictions, 21(Suppl 1), S5–S13. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Mitchell, S. G., Gryczynski, J., O’Grady, K. E., & Schwartz, R. P. (2013). SBIRT for adolescent drug and alcohol use: Current status and future directions. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(5), 463–472. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Mitchell, S. G., Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Myers, C. P., O'Grady, K. E., Kirk, A. S., & Schwartz, R. P. (2014). The CRAFFT cut-points and DSM-5 criteria for alcohol and other drugs: A reevaluation and reexamination. Substance Abuse, 35(4), 376–380. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Mone, S. M., Gillman, M. W., Miller, T. L., Herman, E. H., & Lipshultz, S. E. (2004). Effects of environmental exposures on the cardiovascular system: Prenatal period through adolescence. Pediatrics, 113(4 Suppl), 1058–1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Müller, C. P., Carey, R. J., Huston, J. P., & De Souza Silva, M. A. (2007). Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: Focus on 5-HT1A-receptors. Progress in Neurobiology, 81(3), 133–178. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Neale, A., Abraham, S., & Russell, J. (2009). “Ice” use and eating disorders: A report of three cases. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(2), 188–191. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Newton, T. F., De La Garza, R., II, Kalechstein, A. D., & Nestor, L. (2005). Cocaine and methamphetamine produce different patterns of subjective and cardiovascular effects. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 82(1), 90–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nutt, D. J., Lingford-Hughes, A., Erritzoe, D., & Stokes, P. R. (2015). The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(5), 305–312. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Oesterle, T. S., Hitschfeld, M. J., Lineberry, T. W., & Schneekloth, T. D. (2015). CRAFFT as a substance use screening instrument for adolescent psychiatry admissions. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 21(4), 259–266. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ozechowski, T. J., Becker, S. J., & Hogue, A. (2016). SBIRT-A: Adapting SBIRT to maximize developmental fit for adolescents in primary care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 62, 28–37. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Paglia, A., & Room, R. (1999). Preventing substance use problems among youth: A literature review and recommendations. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 3–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pan, W., & Bai, H. (2009). A multivariate approach to a meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(1), 267–277. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Park, J., Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J. D., Haggerty, K. P., Duncan, T. E., Duncan, S. C., & Spoth, R. (2000). Effects of the “Preparing for the Drug Free Years” curriculum on growth in alcohol use and risk for alcohol use in early adolescence. Prevention Science, 1(3), 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pasic, J., Russo, J. E., Ries, R. K., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2007). Methamphetamine users in the psychiatric emergency services: A case-control study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33(5), 675–686. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pentz, M. A., Dwyer, J. H., MacKinnon, D. P., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Wang, E. Y., & Johnson, C. A. (1989). A multicommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Effects on drug use prevalence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(22), 3259–3266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Perry, C. L., Komro, K. A., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Bosma, L. M., Farbakhsh, K., Munson, K. A., … Lytle, L. A. (2003). A randomized controlled trial of the middle and junior high school D.A.R.E. and D.A.R.E. Plus programs. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157(2), 178–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pianca, T. G., Rosa, R. L., Cereser, K. M. M., de Aguiar, B. W., de Abrahao, R. C., Lazzari, P. M., … Szobot, C. M. (2017). Differences in biomarkers of crack-cocaine adolescent users before/after abstinence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 177, 207–213. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pilowsky, D. J., & Wu, L. T. (2013). Screening instruments for substance use and brief interventions targeting adolescents in primary care: A literature review. Addictive Behaviors, 38(5), 2146–2153. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Prendergast, M., Podus, D., Finney, J., Greenwell, L., & Roll, J. (2006). Contingency management for treatment of substance use disorders: A meta-analysis. Addiction, 101(11), 1546–1560. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Radcliffe, P., & Stevens, A. (2008). Are drug treatment services only for ‘thieving junkie scumbags’? Drug users and the management of stigmatized identities. Social Science & Medicine, 67(7), 1065–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rawson, R. A., Gonzales, R., McCann, M., & Ling, W. (2007). Use of methamphetamine by young people: Is there reason for concern? Addiction, 102(7), 1021–1022. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rawson, R. A., Gonzales, R., Obert, J. L., McCann, M. J., & Brethen, P. (2005). Methamphetamine use among treatment-seeking adolescents in Southern California: Participant characteristics and treatment response. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 29(2), 67–74. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Riggs, N. R., Chou, C. P., & Pentz, M. A. (2009). Preventing growth in amphetamine use: Long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood. Addiction, 104(10), 1691–1699. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Riggs, P. D., Leon, S. L., Mikulich, S. K., & Pottle, L. C. (1998). An open trial of bupropion for ADHD in adolescents with substance use disorders and conduct disorder. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(12), 1271–1278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Riggs, P. D., Winhusen, T., Davies, R. D., Leimberger, J. D., Mikulich-Gilbertson, S., Klein, C., … Liu, D. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of osmotic-release methylphenidate with cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(9), 903–914. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rocha, B. A. (2003). Stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine in monoamine transporter knockout mice. European Journal of Pharmacology, 479(1–3), 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rodner, S. (2005). “I am not a drug abuse, I am a drug user”: A discourse analysis of 44 drug users’ construction of identity. Addiction Research and Therapy, 13(4), 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rohrbach, L. A., Sun, P., & Sussman, S. (2010). One-year follow-up evaluation of the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial. Preventive Medicine, 51(3–4), 313–319. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothman, R. B., & Baumann, M. H. (2003). Monoamine transporters and psychostimulant drugs. European Journal of Pharmacology, 479(1–3), 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rothman, R. B., Baumann, M. H., Dersch, C. M., Romero, D. V., Rice, K. C., Carroll, F. I., & Partilla, J. S. (2001). Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse, 39(1), 32–41.<32::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Rowe, C. L. (2012). Family therapy for drug abuse: review and updates 2003–2010. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 59–81. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rush, C. R., Baker, R. W., & Wright, K. (1999). Acute physiological and behavioral effects of oral cocaine in humans: A dose-response analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55(1–2), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rush, C. R., Kollins, S. H., & Pazzaglia, P. J. (1998). Discriminative-stimulus and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate, bupropion, and triazolam in d-amphetamine-trained humans. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6(1), 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Santisteban, D. A., Mena, M. P., & McCabe, B. E. (2011). Preliminary results for an adaptive family treatment for drug abuse in Hispanic youth. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 610–614. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Scheier, L. M., & Grenard, J. L. (2010). Influence of a nationwide social marketing campaign on adolescent drug use. Journal of Health Communication, 15(3), 240–271. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Shoptaw, S. J., Heinzerling, K. G., Rotheram-Fuller, E., Steward, T., Wang, J., Swanson, A. N., … Ling, W. (2008). Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 96(3), 222–232. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., Heinzerling, K., & Ling, W. (2009). Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009(2), 1–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shoptaw, S. J., King, W. D., Landstrom, E., Bholat, M. A., Heinzerling, K., Victorianne, G. D., & Roll, J. M. (2009). Public health issues surrounding methamphetamine dependence. In J. R. Roll, W. Ling, R. A. Rawson, & S. Shoptaw (Eds.), Methamphetamine addiction: Basic science to treatment (pp. 143–156). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  133. Shoptaw, S. J., Klausner, J. D., Reback, C. J., Tierney, S., Stansell, J., Hare, C. B., … Dang, J. (2006). A public health response to the methamphetamine epidemic: The implementation of contingency management to treat methamphetamine dependence. BMC Public Health, 6, 214. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Shukla, R. K., Crump, J. L., & Chrisco, E. S. (2012). An evolving problem: Methamphetamine production and trafficking in the United States. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23(6), 426–435. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Siebel, T. M., & Mange, S. A. (2009). The Montana Meth Project: “Unselling” a dangerous drug. Stanford Law & Policy Review, 20, 405–416.Google Scholar
  136. Simon, S. L., Richardson, K., Dacey, J., Glynn, S., Domier, C. P., Rawson, R. A., & Ling, W. (2002). A comparison of patterns of methamphetamine and cocaine use. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 21(1), 35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sofuoglu, M., & Sewell, R. A. (2009). Norepinephrine and stimulant addiction. Addiction Biology, 14(2), 119–129. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Solhkhah, R., Wilens, T. E., Daly, J., Prince, J. B., Van Patten, S. L., & Biederman, J. (2005). Bupropion SR for the treatment of substance-abusing outpatient adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mood disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 15(5), 777–786. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stanger, C., Lansing, A. H., & Budney, A. J. (2016). Advances in research on contingency management for adolescent substance use. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25(4), 645–659. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stein, M. D. (1999). Medical consequences of substance abuse. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 22(2), 351–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sterling, S., Kline-Simon, A. H., Satre, D. D., Jones, A., Mertens, J., Wong, A., & Weisner, C. (2015). Implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for adolescents in pediatric primary care: A cluster randomized trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(11), e153145. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Stitzer, M., & Petry, N. (2006). Contingency management for treatment of substance abuse. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2, 411–434. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Stoops, W. W., Glaser, P. E., Fillmore, M. T., & Rush, C. R. (2004). Reinforcing, subject-rated, performance and physiological effects of methylphenidate and d-amphetamine in stimulant abusing humans. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18(4), 534–543. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Stoops, W. W., Pike, E., Hays, L. R., Glaser, P. E., & Rush, C. R. (2015). Naltrexone and bupropion, alone or combined, do not alter the reinforcing effects of intranasal methamphetamine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 129, 45–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Strang, J., Babor, T., Caulkins, J., Fischer, B., Foxcroft, D., & Humphreys, K. (2012). Drug policy and the public good: Evidence for effective interventions. Lancet, 379(9810), 71–83. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sun, W., Skara, S., Sun, P., Dent, C. W., & Sussman, S. (2006). Project Towards No Drug Abuse: Long-term substance use outcomes evaluation. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 188–192. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Susskind, H., Weber, D. A., Volkow, N. D., & Hitzemann, R. (1991). Increased lung permeability following long-term use of free-base cocaine (crack). Chest, 100(4), 903–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sussman, S., Valente, T. W., Rohrbach, L. A., Dent, C. W., & Sun, P. (2014). Commentary—Project Towards No Drug Abuse: An evidence-based drug abuse prevention program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(4), 233–237. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Swadi, H. (1999). Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 55(3), 209–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Szobot, C. M., Rohde, L. A., Katz, B., Ruaro, P., Schaefer, T., Walcher, M., … Pechansky, F. (2008). A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 41(3), 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tashkin, D. P., Khalsa, M. E., Gorelick, D., Chang, P., Simmons, M. S., Coulson, A. H., & Gong, H., Jr. (1992). Pulmonary status of habitual cocaine smokers. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 145(1), 92–100. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Teter, C. J., McCabe, S. E., Cranford, J. A., Boyd, C. J., & Guthrie, S. K. (2005). Prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants in an undergraduate student sample. Journal of American College Health, 53(6), 253–262. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Thomas, R. E., McLellan, J., & Perera, R. (2013). School-based programs for preventing smoking. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(4), 1–331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tobler, N. S., Roona, M. R., Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D. G., Streke, A. V., & Stackpole, K. M. (2000). School-based adolescent drug prevention, 2 programs: 1998 meta-analysis. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 20(4), 275–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Uhl, G. R., Hall, F. S., & Sora, I. (2002). Cocaine, reward, movement and monoamine transporters. Molecular Psychiatry, 7(1), 21–26. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Upadhyaya, H. P. (2008). Substance use disorders in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Implications for treatment and the role of the primary care physician. Prim Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 10(3), 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Valencia, M. P., & Castillo, M. (2008). Congenital and acquired lesions of the nasal septum: A practical guide for differential diagnosis. Radiographics, 28(1), 205–224.; quiz 326. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Vermeulen-Smit, E., Verdurmen, J. E., & Engels, R. C. (2015). The effectiveness of family interventions in preventing adolescent illicit drug use: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18(3), 218–239. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Voas, R. B., Tippetts, A. S., & Fell, J. C. (2003). Assessing the effectiveness of minimum legal drinking age and zero tolerance laws in the United States. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 35(4), 579–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Volkow, N. D., Wang, G. J., Fischman, M. W., Foltin, R., Fowler, J. S., Franceschi, D., … Pappas, N. (2000). Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain. Life Sciences, 67(12), 1507–1515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Vrecko, S. (2015). Everyday drug diversions: A qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus. Social Science & Medicine, 131, 297–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Waldron, H. B., & Turner, C. W. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 238–261. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ward, A. S., Haney, M., Fischman, M. W., & Foltin, R. W. (1997). Binge cocaine self-administration by humans: Smoked cocaine. Behavioural Pharmacology, 8(8), 736–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Warden, D., Riggs, P. D., Min, S. J., Mikulich-Gilbertson, S. K., Tamm, L., Trello-Rishel, K., & Winhusen, T. (2012). Major depression and treatment response in adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorder. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 120(1–3), 214–219. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wee, S., Anderson, K. G., Baumann, M. H., Rothman, R. B., Blough, B. E., & Woolverton, W. L. (2005). Relationship between the serotonergic activity and reinforcing effects of a series of amphetamine analogs. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 313(2), 848–854. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Weinshenker, D., & Schroeder, J. P. (2007). There and back again: A tale of norepinephrine and drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32(7), 1433–1451. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Wells, S. M., Buford, M. C., Porter, V. M., Brunell, H. L., Bunderson-Schelvan, M., Nevin, A. B., … Holian, A. (2010). Role of the serotonergic system in reduced pulmonary function after exposure to methamphetamine. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 42(5), 537–544. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Werb, D., Rowell, G., Guyatt, G., Kerr, T., Montaner, J., & Wood, E. (2011). Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: a systematic review. International Journal of Drug Policy, 22(2), 87–94. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. West, S. L., & O’Neal, K. K. (2004). Project D.A.R.E. outcome effectiveness revisited. American Journal of Public Health, 94(6), 1027–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Wilens, T. E., Adler, L. A., Adams, J., Sgambati, S., Rotrosen, J., Sawtelle, R., … Fusillo, S. (2008). Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: A systematic review of the literature. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), 21–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wise, R. A., & Bozarth, M. A. (1987). A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction. Psychological Review, 94(4), 469–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wu, Y., Stanton, B. F., Galbraith, J., Kaljee, L., Cottrell, L., Li, X., … Burns, J. M. (2003). Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A longitudinal randomized trial of 3 adolescent risk reduction approaches. Pediatrics, 111(1), e32–e38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yu, C. H., Guarna, G., Tsao, P., Jesuthasan, J. R., Lau, A. N., Siddiqi, F. S., … Advani, A. (2016). Incentivizing health care behaviors in emerging adults: A systematic review. Patient Preference and Adherence, 10, 371–381. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Zaso, M. J., Park, A., & Antshel, K. M. (2015). Treatments for adolescents with comorbid ADHD and substance use disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Attention Disorders. Advance online publication.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Kentucky College of Arts and SciencesLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA
  4. 4.Center on Drug and Alcohol ResearchUniversity of Kentucky College of MedicineLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations