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Genomic Roadmaps for Augmenting Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

  • P. Suprasanna
  • S. A. Ghuge
  • V. Y. Patade
  • S. J. Mirajkar
  • G. C. Nikalje
Chapter

Abstract

Serious antagonistic impacts of saline environment on plant growth, development, and yield are well established. In this regard, researchers and breeders have been utilizing many conventional as well as modern approaches to aid the process of developing salt-tolerant crops. Biotechnological tools have made the task of engineering salinity tolerance in plants easier. Currently, two major annexes are effectively employed to develop salt-tolerant crops, first, investigation of genetic variation via marker-assisted selection (MAS) and second the transgenic technology. Sustenance of plants under dynamically growth-limiting saline environment depends on alterations and/or switching between multiple biochemical pathways involved in response. A number of key regulatory genes have been successfully identified and characterized in this context which can be explored to serve the purpose of alleviation in salt-tolerant nature of plants. Several genomics-abetted approaches have been reported aiming toward improvement in growth and yield of crops under saline environment. Present chapter focuses on genomic roadmaps for augmentation of crop salt tolerance by various methods including MAS, transgenic breeding, manipulations in small non-coding RNAs, and genome editing. These approaches utilize key players involved in salinity-mediated plant defense mechanisms, such as ion transporters, osmolytes, antioxidants, transcription factors, signaling proteins, and microRNA. The chapter attempts to summarize the effective targets and exploration of these key entities to raise salt-tolerant plants through various genomics-related tools.

Keywords

Marker assisted selection Ion transporters Osmolytes Antioxidants Transcription factors microRNA Transgenics 

Abbreviations

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphisms

AOX

Alternate oxidase

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

AtNHX1

Na+/H+ antiporter

CaM

calmodulin

CAT

Catalase

CBL

Calcineurin B-like proteins

CDPKs

Calcium-dependent protein kinases

CML

CaM-related proteins

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

ILs

Introgression lines

MAS

Marker-assisted selection

MQTL

Meta-QTL

mt1D

Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase

P5CS

delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase

QTL

Quantitative trait loci

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms

RNAi

RNA interference

SNPs

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SOS

Salt overly sensitive

SSR

Simple sequence repeats

STMS

Sequence-tagged microsatellite site

TFs

Transcription factors

TPSP

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Suprasanna
    • 1
  • S. A. Ghuge
    • 2
  • V. Y. Patade
    • 3
  • S. J. Mirajkar
    • 4
  • G. C. Nikalje
    • 5
  1. 1.Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Division of Biochemical SciencesNational Chemical Laboratory (NCL)PuneIndia
  3. 3.Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO)Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research (DIBER) Field StationPithoragarhIndia
  4. 4.Division of Vegetable ScienceICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)Pusa CampusIndia
  5. 5.Department of BotanyR.K. Talreja College of Arts, Science and CommerceUlhasnagarIndia

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