Advertisement

Population Ecology of Aphid Pests Infesting Potato

  • Mohd Abas Shah
  • Sridhar Jandrajupalli
  • Vallepu Venkateshwarlu
  • Kamlesh Malik
  • Anuj Bhatnagar
  • Sanjeev Sharma
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 28)

Abstract

Potato is one of the most important food crops contributing to nutritional and food security in the world. It is grown as a summer crop in temperate areas of the world and as a winter crop in the subtropics of India and China. Potato crop is damaged by numerous pests and diseases of which aphid transmitted viruses are the major concern for healthy seed potato production. Since potato is a vegetatively propagated crop, the viral diseases lead to an ongoing decline in health of the propagating material i.e., seed degeneration. Hence, the management of aphids and aphid transmitted viruses is the first and foremost requirement for seed potato production. Potatoes are infested by a large number of aphid species very few of them actually able to colonise the crop. Most of the aphids are non-specific to the crop and are cosmopolitan and polyphagous. The common colonising aphid species are Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aulcorthum solani, Aphis gossypii, A. fabae, A. spiraecola etc.; while as more than 100 species of aphids are reported to transiently visit potato crop. Of these, more than 65 species are known to transmit one or more potato viruses. Aphids because of their cyclic parthenogenesis and short life cycle can assume epic proportions while on the other hand, their host selection and feeding behaviour predisposes them to being the most effective virus vectors. The host rang and life cycle characteristics of aphids are also key in determining the rate of spread of the viruses. Keeping in view the importance of life cycle variation and population ecology of aphids for virus transmission in potato crop, information is compiled and analysed to identify the gaps in knowledge and help determine the direction of future research, with special emphasis on the subtropics.

Keywords

Migration Myzus persicae Non-persistent transmission Parthenogenesis Potato virus Y Primary host Seed potato 

References

  1. Bakhetia DRC, Sidhu AC (1977) Biology and seasonal activity of the groundnut aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. J Res Punjab Agric Univ 14(3):299–303. AGRIS record ID = US201302431594Google Scholar
  2. Banerjee H, Ghosh AK, Raychaudhuri DN (1969) On a collection of aphids (Homoptera) from Kutivalley West Himalaya. Orient Ins 3(3):255–264.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1969.10433914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow ND, Dixon AFG (1980) Simulation of lime aphid population dynamics. Pudoc, Wageningen, 165 pp. ISBN: 9022007065Google Scholar
  4. Basu AN (1967) One new genus and seven new species of aphids from Darjeeling district, West Bengal (Homoptera: Aphididae). Bull Ent 8(2):143–157Google Scholar
  5. Basu RC, Raychaudhuri DN (1980) A study on the sexuales of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in India. Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 18, 54 pp. ISSN: 0375-1511Google Scholar
  6. Basu RC, Ghosh AK, Raychaudhuri DN (1970) A new genus and records of some sexual forms from Assam. Proc Zool Soc Calcutta 23:83–91Google Scholar
  7. Bell AC (1988) The efficiency of the bulb and potato aphid Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon (Davidson) as a vector of potato virus V. Potato Res 31(4):691–694.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02361862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blackman RL (1971) Variation in the photoperiodic response within natural populations of Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Bull Ent Res 60:533–546.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300042292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blackman RL (1972) The inheritance of life-cycle differences in Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Hem., Aphididae). Bull Ent Res 62:281–294.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300047726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackman RL (1974) Life-cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Horn., Aphididae) in different parts of the world, in relation to genotype and environment. Bull Ent Res 63:595–607.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300047830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (1994) Aphids on the World’s trees. CAB International, Wallingford, 987 pp. ISBN: 0851988776Google Scholar
  12. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (2000) Aphids on the world’s crops: An identification and information guide, 2nd edition. Wiley, Chichester, UK. 466 pp. ISBN: 978-0-471-85191-2Google Scholar
  13. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (2006) Aphids on the world’s herbaceous plants and shrubs. (2 vols) Wiley, Chichester, 1439 pp. ISBN: 978-0-471-48973-3Google Scholar
  14. Blackman RL, Eastop VF (2007) Taxonomic Issues. In: van Emden, HF, Harrington R (eds), Aphids as Crop Pests. CABI, Wallingford, UK., pp 1–29.  https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851998190.0001
  15. Blackman RL, Paterson AJC (1986) Separation of Myzus (Nectarosiphon) antirrhinii from M. (N.) persicae and related species in Europe. Syst Ent 11:267–276.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1986.tb00181.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bodenheimer FS, Swirski E (1957) The Aphidoidea of the Middle East. Weizmann Science Press, Jerusalem, p 378Google Scholar
  17. Burstein M, Wool D (1991) A galling aphid with extra life-cycle complexity: population ecology and evolutionary considerations. Res Pop Ecol 33:307–322.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02513556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chahal BS, Sekhon SS, Sandhu MS (1974) Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis recorded on roots of potato in the Punjab. In: Symposium on problems in potato production. CPRI, Shimla, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Chakrabarti S, Sarkar A (2001) A supplement to the’ food plant catalogue of Indian Aphididae. J Aphidol 15:9–62Google Scholar
  20. Chandel RS, Chandla VK, Verma KS, Pathania M (2013) Insect pests of potato in india: biology and management In: Giordanengo P, Vincent C, Alyokhin A (eds) Insect pests of potato. Global Perspectives on Biology and Management Elsevier Inc, USA, pp 227–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386895-4.00008-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chauhaf BS, Sekhon SS, Bindra OS (1975) The incidence and the time of appearence of Myzus persicae in autumn potato crop under different agroclimatic conditions in the Punjab. Indian J Ecol 2:155–162. AGRIS record ID = IN19760083833Google Scholar
  22. Costa CL (1970) Variacoes sazonais da migracao de Myzus persicae em Campinas nos anos de 1967 a 1969. Bragantia 29:347–359. http://repositorio.unb.br/handle/10482/15811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cottier W (1953) Aphids of New Zealand. Bull N Z Dept Sci Ind Res 106:1–368Google Scholar
  24. David SK (1958) Some rare Indian aphids. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 55(1):110–116Google Scholar
  25. De Bokx JA, Piron PGM (1990) Relative efficiency of a number of aphid species in the transmission of potato virus YN in the Netherlands. Ned J Pl Path 96(4):237–246.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01974261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Debraj Y, Singh SL, Shantibala K, Singh TK (1995) Comparative biology of the cabbage aphid, Breuicoryne brassicae (L.) on six cruciferous hosts. J Aphidol 9:30–35Google Scholar
  27. DiFonzo CD, Ragsdale DW, Radcliffe EB, Gudmestad NC, Secor GA (1997) Seasonal abundance of aphid vectors of potato virus Y in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. J Econ Ento 90:824–831.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/90.3.824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dixon AFG (1971) The role of intra-specific mechanisms and predation in regulating the numbers of the lime aphid Eucallipterus tiliae L. Oecol 8:179–193.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00345812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dixon AFG, Horth S, Kindlmann P (1993) Migration in Insects: cost and strategies. J Animal Ecol 62:182–190.  https://doi.org/10.2307/5492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Douglas AE (2003) Nutritional physiology of aphids. Adv Insect Physiol 31:73–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(03)31002-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eastop VF (1958) A study of the Aphididae of East Africa. Colonial Research Publication, H.M.S.O, London, 126 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Falk U (1957/58) Biologie and Taxonomic der Schwarzen Blattlause der Leguminosen. Wiss. Z. Uniu Rostock 7(4):616–634Google Scholar
  33. Favret C (2014) Aphid Species File. Version 5.0/5.0. [30-12-2014]. http://Aphid.SpeciesFile.org
  34. Fenton B, Woodford JAT, Malloch G (1998) Analysis of clonal diversity of the peach–potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in Scotland, UK and evidence for the existence of a predominant clone. Mol Ecol 7:1475–1487. http://doi.org/:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00479.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fernandez-Calvino L, Lopez-Abella D, Lopez-Moya JJ, Fereres A (2006) Comparison of Potato virus Y and Plum pox virus transmission by two aphid species in relation to their probing behavior. Phytoparasitica 34:315–324.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ghosh LK (1969) Notes on the male of Rhopolosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki) (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian J Sci Indust 3(4):215–217Google Scholar
  37. Ghosh LK (1970) On a collection of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Rajasthan, India. Indian J Sci Indust (B) 4(2):85–89Google Scholar
  38. Ghosh LK (1986) A conspectus of Aphididae (Homoptera) of Himachal Pradesh in Northwest Himalaya, India. Technical Monograph No. 16. Zoological Survey of India, 282 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Ghosh LK (1990) A taxonomic review of the genus Aphis Linnaeus (Homoptera: Aphididae) in India. Mem Zool Surv India 17(3):45–48Google Scholar
  40. Ghosh AK, Chakrabarti S, Chowdhuri AN, Raychaudhuri DN (1969) Aphids (Homoptera) of Himachal Pradesh, India-II. Orient Ins 3(4):327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ghosh AK, Raychaudhuri DN (1962) A preliminary account of bionomics and taxonomy of aphids from Assam. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 59:238–253Google Scholar
  42. Ghosh AK, Ghosh MR, Raychaudhuri DN (1971) Studies on the aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from Eastern India. VII. New species and new records from West Bengal. Oriental Ins 5(2):209–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1971.10434009
  43. Ghosh AK, Ghosh MR, Raychaudhuri DN (1972) Studies on the aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from eastern India XI: Descriptions of hitherto unknown or newly recorded sexual morphs of some species from West Bengal. Oriental Ins 6(3):333–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00305316.1972.10434083
  44. Halbert SE, Corsini DL, Wiebe MA (2003) Potato Virus Y transmission efficiency for some common aphids in Idaho. Am J Potato Res 80:87–91. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02870-207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hales DH, Wilson ACC, Spence JM, Blackman RL (2000) Confirmation that Myzus antirrhinii (Macchiati) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) occurs in Australia, using morphometrics, microsatellite typing and analysis of novel karyotypes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Austr J Entomol 39:123–129.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6055.2000.00160.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harrington R, Gibson RW (1989) Transmission of potato virus Y by aphids trapped in potato crops in southern England. Potato Res 32(2):167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harrington R, Katis N, Gibson RW (1986) Field assessment of the relative importance of different aphid species in the transmission of potato virus Y. Potato Res 29(1):67–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02361982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jalali SK, Singh SR, Biswas SR (2000) Population dynamics of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) as its natural enemies in the cotton ecosystem. J Aphidol 14:25–32Google Scholar
  49. Jamwal R, Kandoria JL (1990) Appearance and build up of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) on chilli, brinjal and okra in Punjab. J Aphidol 4:49–52Google Scholar
  50. Katis N, Gibson RW (1985) Transmission of potato virus Y by cereal aphids. Potato Res 28:65–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02357571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khurana SMP, Naik PS (2003) The potato: an overview. In: Khurana SMP, Minhas JS, Pandey SK (eds) The potato—production and utilization in subtropics. Mehta Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  52. Kim H, Lee W, Lee S (2006) Three new records of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Korea. J Asia-Pacific Ent 9:301–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1226-8615(08)60307-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Komakazi S, Sakagami Y, Korenaga R (1979) Overwintering of aphids on citrus trees. Jap J Appl Ent Zool 23: 246–250.  https://doi.org/10.1303/jjaez.23.246
  54. Kring JB (1959) The life cycle of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, an example of facultative migration. Ann Ent Soc Am 52:284–286.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/52.3.284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lal L, Verma KD (1987) Seasonal incidence and over seasoning of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on potato in Meghalaya. Indian J Hill Frmg 1:35–39Google Scholar
  56. Maity SP, Chakrabarti S (1981) On poplar inhabiting aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) of India and adjoining countries with notes on some species. Entomon 6(4):297–305. AGRIS record no. 19820591768Google Scholar
  57. Margaritopoulos JT, Tsitsipis JA, Goudoudaki S, Blackman RL (2002) Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece. Bull Entomol Res 92:309–319.  https://doi.org/10.1079/BER2002167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Matsuka M, Imanishi M (1982) Life cycle of an aphid, Acyrthosiphon magnoliae (Essig et Kuwana) observed near Tokyo and in a laboratory under controlled condition. Bull Fac Agric Tamagawa Univ 22:56–66 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  59. Misra SS (2002) Aphids as Vector of plant diseases and their chemical control. Abs.: Nat. Seminar on Ecology and Diversity of aphids and aphidophaga complex, Tripura University May 4–5, 2002, p 26Google Scholar
  60. Mondal S, Wenninger EJ, Hutchinson PJS, Weibe MA, Eigenbrode SD, Bosque-Pérez NA (2016a) Contribution of noncolonizing aphids to potato virus y prevalence in potato in Idaho. Env Ent pii: nvw131. http://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvw131
  61. Mondal S, Wenninger EJ, Hutchinson PJS, Whitworth JL, Shrestha D, Eigenbrode SD, Bosque-Pérez NA (2016b) Comparison of transmission efficiency of various isolates of Potato virus Y among three aphid vectors. Ent Exp et App 158(3):258–268.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moritsu M (1983) Aphids of Japan in colours. Zenkoku Noson, Tokyo, 545 pp (ISBN 4- 88137-017-0) Google Scholar
  63. Müller FP (1978) Untersuchungen über Blattläuse mecklenburgischer Hochmoore. Arch Freunde Naturg Mecklenb 18:31–41Google Scholar
  64. Müller FP, Möller FW (1968) Ein bermerkenswerters Massenauftreten von Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Freiland. Archiv der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 14:44–55Google Scholar
  65. Nagaich BB, Vashisth KS (1963) Barley yellow dwarf, a new virus disease for India. Indian Phytopath 16:318–319Google Scholar
  66. Pande SK, Kang GS (2003) Ecological and varietal improvement. In: Khurana SMP, Minhas JS, Pandey SK (eds) The Potato—Production and Utilization in Subtropics. Mehta Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp 48–60Google Scholar
  67. Piron PGM (1986) New aphid vectors of potato virus YN. Ned J Pl Path 92(5):223–229.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01977688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Powell G, Tosh CR, Hardie J (2006) Host plant selection by aphids: behavioral, evolutionary, and applied perspectives. Ann Rev Entomol 51:309–330.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pushkarnath Nirula KK (1970) Aphid-warning for production of seed potato in subtropical plains of India. India J Agr. Sci 40(12):1061–1070Google Scholar
  70. Qiao G, Zhang G (1999) Five new species and one new subspecies of Macrosiphinae from Fujian province, China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 24:304–314Google Scholar
  71. Radcliffe EB (1982) Insect pests of potato. Ann Rev Entomol 127:173–204.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.27.010182.001133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ragsdale D, Radcliffe E, diFonzo CD (2001) Epidemiology and field control of PVY and PLRV. In: Lobenstein G, Berger, PH, Brunt AA, Lawson R (eds), Virus and virus-like diseases of potatoes and production of seed potatoes. Kluwar Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp 237–70.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0842-6_22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rakauskas R, Bašilova J, Bernotienė R (2015) Aphis pomi and Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) in Europe—new information on their distribution, molecular and morphological peculiarities. Eur J Ent 112:270–280.  https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2015.043
  74. Raychaudhuri DN (1983) Food plant catalogue of Indian Aphididae. Grafic Print All, Calcutta, p 181Google Scholar
  75. Raychaudhuri SP, Ganguly B (1968) A mosaic streak of wheat. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 59:385–389Google Scholar
  76. Raychaudhuri DN, Pal PK, Ghosh AK (1980a) Subfamily Pemphiginae. In: Raychaudhuri DN (ed) Aphids of North East India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society, Calcutta, pp 409–433Google Scholar
  77. Raychaudhuri DN, Ghosh MR, Basu, RC (1980b) Subfamily Aphidinae. In: Raychaudhuri DN (ed) Aphids of North East India and Bhutan. The Zoological Society, Calcutta, pp 47–275Google Scholar
  78. Richards WR (1960) A synopsis of the genus Rhopalosiphum in Canada. Memoirs Ent Soc Canada 92(S13):5–51.  https://doi.org/10.4039/entm9213fvCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shaposhnikov GK (1966) Origin and breakdown of reproductive isolation and the criterion of the species. Ent Rev 45:1–18Google Scholar
  80. Shigehara T, Komazaki S, Takada H (2006) Detection and characterization of new genotypes of Myzus antirrhinii in Japan, with evidence for production of sexual morphs. Bull Ent Res 96:605–611.  https://doi.org/10.1079/BER2006460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shridhar J, Venkateshwarlu, Nagesh M (2015) Aphids. In: Singh BP, Nagesh M, Sharma S, Sagar, Jeevalatha A, Shridhar J (eds) A manual on diseases and pests of potato. Technical Bulletin No. 101. ICAR-central Potato Research Institute Shimla, pp 56–61Google Scholar
  82. Sigvald R (1984) The relative efficiency of some aphid species as vectors of potato virus Yo (PVYo). Potato Res 27(3):285–290.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02357636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sigvald R (1987) Aphid migration and the importance of some aphid species as vectors of potato virus YO (PVYO) in Sweden. Potato Res 30:267–283.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02357668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sigvald R (1989) Relationship between aphid occurrence and spread of potato virus Yo (PVYO) in field experiments in southern Sweden. J App Ent 108:35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1989.tb00430.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sigvald R (1990) Aphids on potato foliage in Sweden and their importance as vectors of potato virus Yo. Acta Agric Scand 40(1):53–58.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0001512900943-8547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Singh R and Ghosh S. (2012) Sexuales of Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) in India. Lambert Academic Publishing Gmbh & CO KG Germany, pp 402Google Scholar
  87. Singh RP, Kurz J, Boiteau G (1996) Detection of stylet-borne and circulative potato viruses in aphids by duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Virol Methods 59:189–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-0934(96)02043-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Takada H (1988) Interclonal variability in the photoperiodic response for sexual morph production of Japanese Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom., Aphididae). J Appl Ent 106:188–197.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1988.tb00582.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Takahashi R (1923) Aphididae of Formosa Part 2. Rep. Govt Res. lnst. Dep. Agric. Formosa No. 4, 173 ppGoogle Scholar
  90. Talati GM, Bhutami PG (1980) Reproduction and population dynamics of groundnut aphids. Gujarat Agric Univ J Res 5:54–56Google Scholar
  91. Tanaka T (1961) The rice root aphids, their ecology and control.  Spec Bull Coll Agric Utsunomiya 10:183Google Scholar
  92. Torikura H (1991) Revisional notes on Japanese Rhopalosiphum, with keys to species based on the morphs on the primary host. Jpn J Ent 59:257–273Google Scholar
  93. Tsuchida T, Koga R, Horikawa M, Tsunoda T, Maoka T, Matsumoto S, Simon JC, Fukatsu T (2010) Symbiotic bacterium modifies aphid body color. Science 330:1102–1104.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1195463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. van Emden HF, Harrington R (2007) Aphids as crop pests, 1st edn. CAB International, Willingford, United KingdomCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. van Emden HF, Eastop VF, Hughes RD, Way MJ (1969) The Ecology of Myzus persicae. Ann Rev Entomol 14:197–270.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.14.010169.001213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. van Hoof HA (1977) Determination of the infection pressure of potato virus YN. Ned J Pl Path 83:123–127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01981557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. van Hoof HA (1980) Aphid vectors of potato virus YN. Eur J Pl Path 86(3):159–162.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01989708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Verma KD (1988) First record of apterous oviparous females of potato root aphid from India. J Indian Potato Assoc 15:192Google Scholar
  99. Verma KD, Chandla VK (1990) Potato aphids and their management. Technical Bulletin No. 26 (Revised). ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, 34 ppGoogle Scholar
  100. Verma KD, Chauhan RS (1993) The life cycle of potato vector, Myzus persieae (Sulzer). Curr Sci 65:488–489Google Scholar
  101. Verma KD, Ghosh LK (1990) Discovery of sexual female of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) with redescription of its alate male from India. J Aphidol 4:30–35Google Scholar
  102. Verma KD, Khurana AD (1974) Sexuals of Aphis craccivora Koch, on green gram in India. Entomol News l 4:53Google Scholar
  103. Verma KD, Parihar SBS (1991) Build up of the vector Aphis gossypii (Glover) on potato. J Aphidol 5:16–18Google Scholar
  104. Williams IS, Dixon AFG (2007) Life cycles and polymorphism. In: van Emden H, Harrington R (eds) Aphids as crop pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yano K, Miyake T, Eastop VF (1983) The biology and economic importance of rice aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a review. Bull Ent Res 73:539–566.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300009160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Young WR, Bhatia SK, Phadke KG (1971) Rice Root Aphid observed on Barley at Delhi. Entomol Newsl 1:53Google Scholar
  107. Zhang G, Zhong T (1982) Experimental studies on some aphid life-cycle patterns. Sinozoologia 2:7–17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Abas Shah
    • 1
  • Sridhar Jandrajupalli
    • 2
  • Vallepu Venkateshwarlu
    • 2
  • Kamlesh Malik
    • 3
  • Anuj Bhatnagar
    • 3
  • Sanjeev Sharma
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Potato Research StationJalandharIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Central Potato Research InstituteShimlaIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Central Potato Research StationModipuram, MeerutIndia

Personalised recommendations