Advertisement

RBD, Gastric Peptides, and Gastric Motility

  • Marcus M. Unger
  • Wolfgang H. Oertel
Chapter

Abstract

Clinical and histopathological studies indicate involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in idiopathic RBD. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms as well as histopathological findings in idiopathic RBD resemble findings in Parkinson’s disease.

Gastrointestinal disturbances in idiopathic RBD might relate to a dysfunctional brain-gut axis, to pathology in the enteric nervous system, as well as to intraluminal shifts in gut microbiota. Brain-gut communication in RBD might be compromised by vagal dysfunction as well as by alterations in the neuroendocrine system. In this chapter data on secretion patterns of gastrointestinal neuropeptides (ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide) as well as data on gastric motility in idiopathic RBD will be reviewed. The reviewed data endorse the assumption of a common underlying pathology in idiopathic RBD and Parkinson’s disease.

Keywords

Gastric motility Ghrelin Pancreatic polypeptide neuroendocrine peptides Parkinson’s disease Enteric nervous system Ghrelin  Gastric emptying 13C-octanoate breath test 

References

  1. 1.
    Hawkes CH, Del Tredici K, Braak H. Parkinson’s disease: a dual-hit hypothesis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33(6):599–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hawkes CH, Del Tredici K, Braak H. Parkinson’s disease: the dual hit theory revisited. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1170:615–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, White LR, Masaki KH, Tanner CM, Curb JD, et al. Frequency of bowel movements and the future risk of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 2001;57(3):456–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noyce AJ, Bestwick JP, Silveira-Moriyama L, Hawkes CH, Giovannoni G, Lees AJ, et al. Meta-analysis of early nonmotor features and risk factors for Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol. 2012;72(6):893–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cersosimo MG, Raina GB, Pecci C, Pellene A, Calandra CR, Gutierrez C, et al. Gastrointestinal manifestations in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and occurrence before motor symptoms. J Neurol. 2013;260(5):1332–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shannon KM, Keshavarzian A, Dodiya HB, Jakate S, Kordower JH. Is alpha-synuclein in the colon a biomarker for premotor Parkinson’s disease? Evidence from 3 cases. Mov Disord. 2012;27(6):716–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Postuma RB, Lang AE, Massicotte-Marquez J, Montplaisir J. Potential early markers of Parkinson disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2006;66(6):845–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ferini-Strambi L, Oertel W, Dauvilliers Y, Postuma RB, Marelli S, Iranzo A, et al. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder: a multicentre case-control study. J Neurol. 2014;261(6):1112–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sprenger FS, Stefanova N, Gelpi E, Seppi K, Navarro-Otano J, Offner F, et al. Enteric nervous system alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 2015;85(20):1761–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vilas D, Iranzo A, Tolosa E, Aldecoa I, Berenguer J, Vilaseca I, et al. Assessment of alpha-synuclein in submandibular glands of patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(7):708–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goetze O, Nikodem AB, Wiezcorek J, Banasch M, Przuntek H, Mueller T, et al. Predictors of gastric emptying in Parkinson’s disease. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18(5):369–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goetze O, Wieczorek J, Mueller T, Przuntek H, Schmidt WE, Woitalla D. Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson’s disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test. Neurosci Lett. 2005;375(3):170–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hardoff R, Sula M, Tamir A, Soil A, Front A, Badarna S, et al. Gastric emptying time and gastric motility in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16(6):1041–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Unger MM, Ekman R, Bjorklund AK, Karlsson G, Andersson C, Mankel K, et al. Unimpaired postprandial pancreatic polypeptide secretion in Parkinson’s disease and REM sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2013;28(4):529–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Unger MM, Moller JC, Mankel K, Eggert KM, Bohne K, Bodden M, et al. Postprandial ghrelin response is reduced in patients with Parkinson’s disease and idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder: a peripheral biomarker for early Parkinson’s disease? J Neurol. 2011;258(6):982–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Niebel W, Eysselein VE, Singer MV. Pancreatic polypeptide response to a meal before and after cutting the extrinsic nerves of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas in the dog. Dig Dis Sci. 1987;32(9):1004–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rudnicki M, Rigel DF, McFadden DW. Vagal cooling blocks circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) release. J Surg Res. 1991;51(1):40–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Unger MM, Moller JC, Mankel K, Schmittinger K, Eggert KM, Stamelou M, et al. Patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder show normal gastric motility assessed by the 13C-octanoate breath test. Mov Disord. 2011;26(14):2559–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Postuma RB, Gagnon JF, Pelletier A, Montplaisir J. Prodromal autonomic symptoms and signs in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Mov Disord. 2013;28(5):597–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Claus I, Heidbreder A, Dziewas R, Warnecke T. Esophageal motor impairment in REM-sleep behavior disorder: a biomarker of early Parkinson’s disease? Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2017;38:95–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andrews ZB, Erion D, Beiler R, Liu ZW, Abizaid A, Zigman J, et al. Ghrelin promotes and protects nigrostriatal dopamine function via a UCP2-dependent mitochondrial mechanism. J Neurosci. 2009;29(45):14057–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bayliss JA, Andrews ZB. Ghrelin is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s disease: molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuroprotection. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2013;4(1):25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jiang H, Li LJ, Wang J, Xie JX. Ghrelin antagonizes MPTP-induced neurotoxicity to the dopaminergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra. Exp Neurol. 2008;212(2):532–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu L, Xu H, Jiang H, Wang J, Song N, Xie J. Ghrelin prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced cytotoxicity through antioxidation and NF-kappaB modulation in MES23.5 cells. Exp Neurol. 2010;222(1):25–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moon M, Kim HG, Hwang L, Seo JH, Kim S, Hwang S, et al. Neuroprotective effect of ghrelin in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson’s disease by blocking microglial activation. Neurotox Res. 2009;15(4):332–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Keshavarzian A, Green SJ, Engen PA, Voigt RM, Naqib A, Forsyth CB, et al. Colonic bacterial composition in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2015;30(10):1351–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scheperjans F, Aho V, Pereira PA, Koskinen K, Paulin L, Pekkonen E, et al. Gut microbiota are related to Parkinson’s disease and clinical phenotype. Mov Disord. 2015;30(3):350–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Unger MM, Spiegel J, Dillmann KU, Grundmann D, Philippeit H, Burmann J, et al. Short chain fatty acids and gut microbiota differ between patients with Parkinson’s disease and age-matched controls. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;32:66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heintz-Buschart A, Pandey U, Wicke T, et al. The nasal and gut microbiome in Parkinson’s disease and idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2018;33:88–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus M. Unger
    • 1
  • Wolfgang H. Oertel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologySaarland UniversityHomburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyPhilipps University MarburgMarburgGermany

Personalised recommendations