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Status Dissociatus and Its Relation to RBD

  • Elena Antelmi
  • Giuseppe Plazzi
Chapter

Abstract

The simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological, and autonomic descriptors conventionally defines each physiologic state of being. When functional or anatomical abnormalities involve the structures of the network orchestrating the synchronization of these descriptors, features of a state of being are erroneously recruited into an ongoing state, generating aberrant conditions. Several deviant patterns may occur, such as hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis due to intrusion of other states of being while awake; REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming due to the intrusion of features of wakefulness while in REM sleep; and the disorders of arousal, for the intrusion of features of wakefulness while in NREM sleep (according to the conventional way or interpretation adopted in the chapter).

Status dissociatus labels the extreme expression of the breakdown in the boundaries of state determinants. It ranges from conditions characterized by state instability with subcontinuous state transitions, as seen in autoimmune encephalitis and type 1 narcolepsy, to extreme conditions where state of being can no longer be identified.

Keywords

REM sleep behavior disorder Oneiric stupor Status dissociatus Narcolepsy Autoimmune encephalitis Agrypnia excitata 

Abbreviations

ADCA-DN

Dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy

caspr2

Contactin-associated protein 2

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

EEG

Electroencephalography

EMG

Electromyography

GBS

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Hcrt

Hypocretin

Lgi1

Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

NT1

Type 1 narcolepsy

NMDA

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PLMs

Periodic leg movements

PSG

Polysomnography

RBD

REM sleep behavior disorder

REM

Rapid eyes movement

RSWA

REM sleep without atonia

SD

Status dissociatus

SOREMP

REM sleep onset periods

VGKC-Ab

Voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies

W

Wake

Notes

Note Added in Proof

An additional case has recently been published: 1) Puligheddu M, Congiu P, Laccu I, et al. Overlap parasomnia disorder in a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Sleep Med. 2017;36:75–7.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena Antelmi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Plazzi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor SciencesAlma Mater Studiorum, University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.IRCCS Institute of Neurological SciencesBolognaItaly

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