Influence of Flood Levels on the Richness and Abundance of Galling Insects Associated with Trees from Seasonally Flooded Forests of Central Amazonia, Brazil

  • Genimar R. Julião
  • Eduardo M. Venticinque
  • G. Wilson Fernandes


We reexamined three hypotheses - “Nutritional stress hypothesis,” “Hydric stress hypothesis,” and “Plant species richness hypothesis” – which addressed galling insect abundance and richness in the canopies of igapó and várzea forests, considering different flooding levels (high and low quota). The collections were made at the Mamirauá and Amanã Reserves, Brazil. In the várzea 26,244 galls were collected, corresponding to 297 species of galling insects; 23,994 galls were sampled in the igapó and identified as 235 galling species. The forest type and habitat (flooding level) had no significant effect on galling insect abundance. However, the interaction between these explanatory variables accounted for the variance on galling insect richness (GIR). High/low igapó categories presented larger values of the ratio between galling insect richness and tree richness, when compared to high/low várzea forests. The number of tree species was responsible for 82% of the variation in várzea GIR, while in the igapó a smaller value - 70% - was observed. Our findings indicated that local nutrient availability (igapó and várzea), flood levels, and their interaction affect both insects and plants, as well as their ecological relationships.



We thank M.T. Piedade, S. Ribeiro, C. Fonseca, J. Almeida-Cortez, and H. Vasconcelos for helpful comments on the initial versions of this manuscript. J. Guedes, J. Ramos, E. Pereira, P. Assunção, and J. Inuma provided valuable technical assistance in several phases of this project. Funds were provided by the Program FEPIM 2003 from Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute and Mamirauá Civil Society, which also provided all logistical support to the field work. G.R. Julião received a PhD grant from CNPq (Process Number: 141415/2003-7). GWF thanks CNPq and FAPEMIG for grant supports.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Genimar R. Julião
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eduardo M. Venticinque
    • 3
  • G. Wilson Fernandes
    • 4
  1. 1.Coordenação de Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA)ManausBrazil
  2. 2.Fiocruz Rondônia, Laboratório de EntomologiaPorto VelhoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de EcologiaCB/Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus UniversitárioLagoa NovaBrazil
  4. 4.Ecologia Evolutiva e Biodiversidade/DBG, CP 486, ICB/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)Belo HorizonteBrazil

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