Advertisement

From the Time of Tsar Peter the Great to Modern Russia: The Development of Physical Anthropology and Bioarchaeology

  • Vyacheslav Moiseyev
  • Alexandra Buzhilova
  • Eileen M. MurphyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The study of human skeletal remains in Russia had its genesis in the late seventeenth century during the reign of Tsar Peter the Great who was instrumental in the foundation of the Kunstkamera Museum and the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. Physical anthropology was recognised as a discipline in its own right during the nineteenth century, because of the efforts of scientists working in both Saint Petersburg and Moscow; this development paved the way for the modern structures within which it still operates today. The paper reviews the birth of physical anthropology in Russia and examines the concept of ‘race’ within the Russian context. Physical anthropology flourished during the Soviet era and the reasons for this are explored, while the major developments are outlined. The paper ends by examining the changes in the field that have occurred since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Keywords

Russia Empire, race Soviet Physical anthropology Bioarchaeology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Maria V. Khartanovich, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) and Russian Academy of Science, for arranging the necessary copyright permissions for Fig. 9.2a. Thanks are also due to Libby Mulqueeny, School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen’s University Belfast, for her assistance with Fig. 9.2.

References

  1. Abdushelishvili, M.G. 1964. Anthropology of the Ancient and Modern Populations of Georgia. Tbilisi: Mecniereba Press. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Abider, N.A. 1960. Transversal Flatness of the Cranial Face (Trudy Instituta Etnografii Akademii Nauk SSSR (Novaya seriya) 50). Moscow/Leningrad: Academy of Science of the USSR (In Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Alexeev, V.P. 1969. The Origins of the Peoples of Eastern Europe: Cranial Study. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  4. ———. 1974. The Origin of the People of Caucasus: Cranial Study. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  5. Alexeeva, T.I. 1973. Orthogenesis of Eastern Slavic Populations according to Anthropological Data. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  6. Allentoft, M.E., M. Sikora, K.G. Sjögren, S. Rasmussen, M. Rasmussen, J. Stenderup, P.B. Damgaard, H. Schroeder, T. Ahlström, L. Vinner, A.S. Malaspinas, A. Margaryan, T. Higham, D. Chivall, N. Lynnerup, L. Harvig, J. Baron, P. Della Casa, P. Dąbrowski, P.R. Duffy, A.V. Ebel, A. Epimakhov, K. Frei, M. Furmanek, T. Gralak, A. Gromov, S. Gronkiewicz, G. Grupe, T. Hajdu, R. Jarysz, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, V. Kiss, J. Kolář, A. Kriiska, I. Lasak, C. Longhi, G. McGlynn, A. Merkevicius, I. Merkyte, M. Metspalu, R. Mkrtchyan, V. Moiseyev, L. Paja, G. Pálfi, D. Pokutta, Ł. Pospieszny, T.D. Price, L. Saag, M. Sablin, N. Shishlina, V. Smrčka, V.I. Soenov, V. Szeverényi, G. Tóth, S.V. Trifanova, L. Varul, M. Vicze, L. Yepiskoposyan, V. Zhitenev, L. Orlando, T. Sicheritz-Pontén, S. Brunak, R. Nielsen, K. Kristiansen, and E. Willerslev. 2015. Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522: 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anthony, D., D. Brown, A. Khokhlov, P. Kuznetsov, and O. Mochalov, eds. 2016. The Samara Valley Project: A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes (American School of Prehistoric Research). Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Anuchin, D. 1899. Race. In Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar, ed. F.A. Brokgauz and I.E. Efronpp, vol. 26, 356–360. Saint Petersburg: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Aristova, E.S., T.A. Chikisheva, A.M. Seidman, A.N. Mashak, and Y.A. Khoroshevskaya. 2006. Pituitary Dwarfism in an early Bronze age individual from Tuva. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 27: 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berry, A.C., and R.J. Berry. 1967. Epigenetic Variation in the Human Cranium. Journal of Anatomy 101: 361–379.Google Scholar
  11. Borutskaya, S.B., S.V. Vasilyev, and V.A. Yemialyanchyk. 2015. The population of Polotsk in the 17-18th centuries according to anthropological data. International Journal of Anthropology 30: 27–42.Google Scholar
  12. Bunak, V.V. 1965. Origins and Ethnic History of the Russians According to Anthropological Data. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Buzhilova, A.P. 1992. Studying physiological stress in ancient population by the methods of palaeopathology. In Ecological Aspects of Palaeoanthropological and Archaeological Reconstructions, ed. V.P. Alexeev and V.N. Fedosova, 78–104. Moscow: Institute of Archaeology. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2011. Russia. In The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, ed. N. Márquez-Grant and L. Fibiger, 363–372. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2016. A reconstruction of the lifestyle of early humans by natural-science methods. Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences 86: 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buzhilova, A.P., and N.Y. Berezina. 2008. A possible case of multiple Myeloma in a skeleton of early medieval age from Northern Caucasus. In Opus: Interdisciplinary Investigations in Archaeology 6, ed. A. Buzhilova, 343–351. Moscow: Paralleli. (In Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  17. Chikisheva, T.A., A.V. Zubova, A.L. Krivoshapkin, V.P. Kurbatov, P.V. Volkov, and A.T. Titov. 2014. Trepanation among the early Nomads of Gorny Altai: A multidisciplinary study. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 42: 130–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chistov, Y.K., E.A. Rezvan, Y.A. Kupina, and E.A. Mikhailova. 2004. Kunstkamera Museum 290 Years: Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Sciences: History, Collections, Research. Saint Petersburg: RAS MAE.Google Scholar
  19. Chtetcov, V.T. 2004. The Cradle of Russian Anthropology. Moscow: Moscow University Press. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  20. Cummins, H., and C. Midlo. 1961. Finger Prints, Palms and Soles: An Introduction to Dermatoglyphics. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  21. Dahlberg, A.A. 1951. The dentition of the American Indian. In The Physical Anthropology of the American Indian, ed. W.S. Laughlin, 138–176. New York: The Viking Fund.Google Scholar
  22. Darwin, C.R. 1859. On the Origin of Species. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  23. Debets, G.F. 1948. Paleo-anthropology of the USSR (Trudy Instituta Etnografii Akademii Nauk SSSR (Novaya seriya) 4). Moscow, Leningrad: Academy of Science of the USSR (In Russian).Google Scholar
  24. ———. 1951. Anthropological Research in the Kamchatka Region. Trudy Severo-Vostochnoy Expedicii. Moscow, Leningrad: Academy of Science of the USSR. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  25. Denisova, R.Y. 1977. Origins of Letts (According to Cranial Data). Riga: Zinatne.Google Scholar
  26. Dobrovolskaya, M. 2005. Upper palaeolithic and late stone age human diet. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science 24: 433–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dobrovolskaya, M.V., and M.B. Mednikova. 2011. ‘Copper people’ of the Bronze Age: The reconstruction of their health and social status. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 39: 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dobrovolskaya, M.V., and A.V. Tiunov. 2013. The Neanderthals of Okladnikov Cave, Altai: Environment and diet based on isotopic analysis. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 41: 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fu, Q., C. Posth, M. Hajdinjak, M. Petr, S. Mallick, D. Fernandes, A. Furtwängler, W. Haak, M. Meyer, A. Mittnik, B. Nickel, A. Peltzer, N. Rohland, V. Slon, S. Talamo, I. Lazaridis, M. Lipson, I. Mathieson, S. Schiffels, P. Skoglund, A.P. Derevianko, N. Drozdov, V. Slavinsky, A. Tsybankov, R. Grifoni Cremonesi, F. Mallegni, B. Gély, E. Vacca, M.R. González Morales, L.G. Straus, C. Neugebauer-Maresch, M. Teschler-Nicola, S. Constantin, O. Teodora Moldovan, S. Benazzi, M. Peresani, D. Coppola, M. Lari, S. Ricci, A. Ronchitelli, F. Valentin, C. Thevenet, K. Wehrberger, D. Grigorescu, H. Rougier, I. Crevecoeur, D. Flas, P. Semal, M.A. Mannino, C. Cupillard, H. Bocherens, N.J. Conard, K. Harvati, V. Moiseyev, D.G. Drucker, J. Svoboda, M.P. Richards, D. Caramelli, R. Pinhasi, J. Kelso, N. Patterson, J. Krause, S. Pääbo, and D. Reich. 2016. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe. Nature 534: 200–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gokhman, I.I. 1980. Craniological Collections of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology and Their Importance to Anthropological Study. Leningrad: Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  31. Graham, L.R. 1993. Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gresky, J., E. Batieva, A. Kitova, A. Kalmykov, A. Belinskiy, S. Reinhold, and N. Berezina. 2016. New cases of trepanations from the 5th to 3rd Millennia BC in Southern Russia in the context of previous research: Possible evidence for a ritually motivated tradition of cranial surgery? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 160: 665–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haak, W., I. Lazaridis, N. Patterson, N. Rohland, S. Mallick, B. Llamas, G. Brandt, S. Nordenfelt, E. Harney, K. Stewardson, Q. Fu, A. Mittnik, E. Bánffy, C. Economou, M. Francken, S. Friederich, R. Garrido Pena, F. Hallgren, V. Khartanovich, A. Khokhlov, M. Kunst, P. Kuznetsov, H. Meller, O. Mochalov, V. Moiseyev, N. Nicklisch, S.L. Pichler, R. Risch, M.A. Rojo Guerra, C. Roth, A. Szécsényi-Nagy, J. Wahl, M. Meyer, J. Krause, D. Brown, D. Anthony, A. Cooper, K. Werner Alt, and D. Reich. 2015. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European Languages in Europe. Nature 522: 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khit, G.L. 1983. Deramatogliphics of the People of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  35. Kozintsev, A.G. 1992. Ethnic epigenetics: A new approach. Homo 43: 213–244.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 1997a. Bogdanov, Anatoly Petrovich (1834-1896). In History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, ed. F. Spencer, vol. 1, 195. London: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 1997b. Anuchin, Dmitrii Nikolaevich (1843-1923). In History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, ed. F. Spencer, vol. 1, 95–96. London: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. Kozlovskaya, M.V. 1996. Ecology of the Ancient Forest Tribes of Eastern Europe. Moscow: Institute of Archaeology. (In Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  39. Kufterin, V., and N. Dubova. 2013. A preliminary analysis of late bronze age human skeletal remains from Gonur-depe, Turkmenistan. Bioarchaeology of the Near East 7: 33–46.Google Scholar
  40. Levin, M.G. 1958. Ethnical Anthropology and Problems of Origins of the Far East Peoples. Moscow: Academy of Science of the USSR. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  41. ———. 1960. Issues About the History of Anthropology in Russia. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  42. Lovetsky, A.L. 1835. Synopsis on Physiology or Anthropo-Biology. Moscow: University Press.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 1838. Guidebook to Knowledge of the Tribes of Mankind. Moscow: University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Loyer, J., A. Tairov, S. Rottier, and P. Courtaud. 2013. Bioarchaeology and burial rituals of the Iron Age Nomads from South Ural: First results of the study of the Kurgan 4 from Kichigino 1 Cemetery (Russia). In Etnicheskyi Vzaimodeictviya na Iujnom Urale, ed. A.D. Tairov and N.O. Ivanova, 157–166. Chelyabinsk: Nauk.Google Scholar
  45. Mark, K. 1970. On the Origin of Finno-Ugric Peoples from the Viewpoint of Anthropology. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat. (In German).Google Scholar
  46. Mednikova, M.B. 1999. Die menschlichen Skelettreste aus den Wirtschaft sgruben der antiken Siedlung Myschako. Eurasia Antiqua 5: 470–474.Google Scholar
  47. Mednikova, M. 2001. Trepanations Among Ancient Peoples of Eurasia. Moscow: Scientific World. (In Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  48. Miller, G.F. 1999. History of Siberia. Vol. 1. Moscow: Vostochnaya Literature RAS. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  49. Mogilner, M. 2013. Homo Imperii: A History of Physical Anthropology in Russia. London: University of Nebraska Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Murphy, E.M. 2003. Iron Age Archaeology and Trauma from Aymyrlyg, South Siberia (BAR International Series 1152). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 2008. A biocultural study of children from Iron Age South Siberia. In Babies Reborn: Infant/Child Burials in Pre- and Proto-history (BAR International Series 1832), ed. K. Bacvarov, 175–187. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  52. Murphy, E.M., and A. Khokhlov. 2016. Biocultural analysis of the prehistoric populations of the Volga Region. In The Samara Valley Project: A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes (American School of Prehistoric Research), ed. D. Anthony, D. Brown, A. Khokhlov, P. Kuznetsov, and O. Mochalov, 147–214. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Murphy, E.M., I.I. Gokhman, Y.K. Chistov, and L.L. Barkova. 2002. A review of the evidence for old world scalping: New cases from the Cemetery of Aymyrlyg, South Siberia. American Journal of Archaeology 106: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Murphy, E.M., Y.K. Chistov, R. Hopkins, P. Rutland, and G.M. Taylor. 2009. Tuberculosis among Iron Age individuals from Tyva, South Siberia: Palaeopathological and biomolecular findings. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2029–2038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Murphy, E.M., R.J. Schulting, N. Beer, Y. Chistov, A. Kasparov, and M. Pshenitsyna. 2013. Iron Age pastoral nomadism and agriculture in the Eastern Eurasian Steppe: Implications from dental palaeopathology and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 2547–2560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Novlyanskaya, M.G. 1970. Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt and his Siberian Research. Leningrad: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  57. Oshanin, L.V., and V.Y. Zezenkova. 1953. Problems of the Origins of the Peoples of Central Asia According to Anthropological Data. Tashkent: Academy of Science of the Uzbec USSR. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  58. Pererva, E. 2005. About a tradition to remove a scalp in the Sarmatians (from materials from the burial ground of Novyi). Rossiskaya Arkheologia 3: 36–44. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2012. A case of trepanation in the Sarmatian Group (based on anthropological material from the Pereguznoe I Burial Ground). Seriya Antropologia 23: 123–133. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  60. Prag, J., and R. Neave. 1997. Making Faces: Using Forensic and Archaeological Evidence. London: British Museum Press.Google Scholar
  61. Radzuin, A., and Y. Chistov. 2012. The First Scientific Collections of Kunstkamera: Exhibition Guide. Saint Petersburg: Russian Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  62. Rasmussen, S., M.E. Allentoft, K. Nielsen, L. Orlando, M. Sikora, K.-G. Sjögren, A. Gorm Pedersen, M. Schubert, A. Van Dam, C.M. Outzen Kapel, H.B. Nielsen, S. Brunak, P. Avetisyan, A. Epimakhov, M.V. Khalyapin, A. Gnuni, A. Kriiska, I. Lasak, M. Metspalu, V. Moiseyev, A. Gromov, D. Pokutta, L. Saag, L. Varul, L. Yepiskoposyan, T. Sicheritz-Pontén, R.A. Foley, M. Mirazón Lahr, R. Nielsen, K. Kristiansen, and E. Willerslev. 2015. Early divergent strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 years ago. Cell 163: 571–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Reich, D., R.E. Green, M. Kircher, J. Krause, N. Patterson, E.Y. Durand, B. Viola, A.W. Briggs, U. Stenzel, P.L.F. Johnson, T. Maricic, J.M. Good, T. Marques-Bonet, C. Alkan, Q. Fu, S. Mallick, H. Li, M. Meyer, E.E. Eichler, M. Stoneking, M. Richards, S. Talamo, M.V. Shunkov, A.P. Derevianko, J.-J. Hublin, J. Kelso, M. Slatkin, and S. Pääbo. 2010. Genetic history of an Archaic Hominin Group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468: 1053–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rokhlin, D.G. 1965. Diseases of Ancient Humans: Human Bones of Various Epochs – Normal and Pathologically Changed. Moscow/Leningrad: Nauka. (In Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  65. Rybak, K.E. 2005. The Museum Law (International and Legal Aspects). Moscow: Yurist. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  66. Sawyer, S., G. Renauda, B. Viola, J.-J. Hublin, M.-T. Gansauge, M.V. Shunkov, A.P. Derevianko, K. Prüfer, J. Kelso, and S. Pääbo. 2015. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112: 15696–15700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Seguin-Orlando, A., T.S. Korneliussen, M. Sikora, A.S. Malaspinas, A. Manica, I. Moltke, A. Albrechtsen, A. Ko, A. Margaryan, V. Moiseyev, T. Goebel, M. Westaway, D. Lambert, V. Khartanovich, J.D. Wall, P.R. Nigst, R.A. Foley, M.M. Lahr, R. Nielsen, L. Orlando, and E. Willerslev. 2014. Genomic structure in Europeans dating back at least 36,200 years. Science 346: 1113–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Svyatko, S.V., R.J. Schulting, J.P. Mallory, E.M. Murphy, P.J. Reimer, V.I. Khartanovich, Y.K. Chistov, and M.V. Sablin. 2013. Stable isotope dietary analysis of prehistoric populations from the Minusinsk Basin, Southern Siberia, Russia: A new chronological framework for the introduction of millet to the Eastern Eurasian Steppe. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3936–3945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tur, S.S. 2014. Bilateral asymmetry of long bones in Bronze and Early Iron Age pastoralists of the Altai. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia 42: 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tur, S.S., S.V. Svyatko, and A.I. Nechvaloda. 2016. Cleft lip case in a Middle Bronze Age young Man from Altai, Russia. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. https://doi.org/10.1002/oa.2538.
  71. Vadetskaya, E.B. 1986. Archaeological Monuments of the Middle Enisey Steppe. Leningrad: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  72. Vitov, M.B., K.Y. Mark, and N. Cheboksarov. 1959. Ethnical Anthropology of the Eastern Baltia: Proceedings of the Baltic Complex Expedition. Vol. 2. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  73. Von Baer, K.E. 1845. Vergleichung eines von Herrn Obrist Hofmann mitebrachten Karagassen-Schädel mit den von Herrn Dr. Ruprecht mitgebrachte Samojedenschädel. Bulletin de la Class Physicomathématique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Petersburg 3: 177–187.Google Scholar
  74. von Strahlenberg, P.J. 1736. An Histori-Geographical Description of the North and Eastern Part of Europe and Asia. London: W. Innys and R. Manby.Google Scholar
  75. Weber, A.W., M.A. Katzenberg, and T.G. Schurr, eds. 2008. Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers of the Baikal Region, Siberia: Bioarchaeological Studies of Past Lifeways. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.Google Scholar
  76. Webster, E.M. 1984. The Moon Man: A Biography of Nikolai Miklouho Maclay. London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  77. Yarkho, A.I. 1947. Altai-Sayan Turkic Populations: Anthropological Review. Abakan: Khakassian National Press. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  78. Zubov, A.A. 1968. Odontology: Methods of Anthropological Studies. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  79. ———. 1973. Ethnical Odontology. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vyacheslav Moiseyev
    • 1
  • Alexandra Buzhilova
    • 2
  • Eileen M. Murphy
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physical Anthropology, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera)Russian Academy of SciencesSaint PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow State University/Institute of ArchaeologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Archaeology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural and Built EnvironmentQueen’s University BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland

Personalised recommendations