Education, SES, and Intelligence

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
  • Rubén Ardila
  • Ricardo Rosas
  • María Emilia Lucio
  • Miguel Gallegos
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta


Three studies analyzed the effect of education and social variables on intelligence (represented by one cognitive measure and at the g level) using samples from the SLATINT Project. The results indicated that intelligence, as measured by one measure (e.g., the SPM or IR test), was slightly influenced by education or the SES of schools. However, when intelligence was represented at the latent level (or g factor), the influence of social variables decreased. On the other hand, school performance was primarily influenced by cognitive differences, and secondly by the SES of schools.


School performance Intelligence SES PISA 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Rubén Ardila
    • 2
  • Ricardo Rosas
    • 3
  • María Emilia Lucio
    • 4
  • Miguel Gallegos
    • 5
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Psychology Federal University of Minas Gerais, Psychology InstituteBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational University of ColombiaBogotaColombia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyPontifical Catholic University of ChileSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Mental Health and Diagnosis Program Faculty of PsychologyNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Faculty of PsychologyNational University of RosarioRosarioArgentina
  6. 6.Faculty of HumanitiesSan Ignacio de Loyola UniversityLimaPeru

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