Cognitive Factor Structure: The g Factor

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
  • Rubén Ardila
  • Ricardo Rosas
  • María Emilia Lucio
  • Miguel Gallegos
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta


One century of intelligence research, generally performed on samples from developed countries, has shown the existence of a general model of intelligence (or g factor). In our study, we tested this model using data from the SLATINT Project. A positive manifold of correlations was found and results from SEM modeling (Structural Equation Modeling), using the total sample and each Latin American sample, indicated that a single-factor model (or g factor) fit the data adequately, i.e., a general cognitive ability influenced performance on a set of cognitive ability measures.


General intelligence g Factor SEM Latin American samples 


  1. Bentler, P.M. (1985). Theory and implementation of EQS. A structural equations program. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.Google Scholar
  2. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Detterman, D. K., & Daniel, M. H. (1989). Correlations of mental tests with each other and with cognitive variables are highest for low-IQ groups. Intelligence, 13, 349–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Floyd, R. G., Shands, E. I., Rafael, F. A., Bergeron, R., & McGrew, K. S. (2009). The dependability of general-factor loadings: the effects of factor-extraction methods, test battery composition, test battery size, and their interactions. Intelligence, 37, 453–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Nueva York, EUA: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  6. Gottfredson, L. (1997). Why g matters: The complexity of every life. Intelligence, 24, 79–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jamshidian, M., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). ML estimation of mean and covariance structures with missing data using complete data routines. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 24, 21–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jensen, A., & Weng, L. (1994). What is a good g? Intelligence, 18, 231–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jensen, A. (2008). Book review. Intelligence, 36, 96–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor. London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson, W., Bouchard, T. J., Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., & Gottesman, I. I. (2004). Just one g: consistent results from three test batteries. Intelligence, 32, 95–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ree, M. J., & Earles, J. A. (1991). The stability of g across different methods of estimation. Intelligence, 15, 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Spearman, C., & Jones, L. W. (1950). Human ability: A continuation of the abilities of man. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Spearman, C. (1927). The abilities of man: Their nature and measurement. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Sternberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Sternberg, R. J. (2003). “My house is a very very fine house”—But it is not the only house. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of general intelligence. Tribute to Arthur R. Jensen. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  17. Thorndike, R. L. (1987). Stability of factor loadings. Personality and individual differences, 8, 585–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yuan, K., & Bentler, P.M. (2000). Three likelihood-based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with nonnormal missing data. Sociological Methodology, 30, 165–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Flores-Mendoza
    • 1
  • Rubén Ardila
    • 2
  • Ricardo Rosas
    • 3
  • María Emilia Lucio
    • 4
  • Miguel Gallegos
    • 5
  • Norma Reátegui Colareta
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFederal University of Minas Gerais, Psychology InstituteBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNational University of ColombiaBogotaColombia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyPontifical Catholic University of ChileSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Mental Health and Diagnosis Program Faculty of PsychologyNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Faculty of PsychologyNational University of RosarioRosarioArgentina
  6. 6.Faculty of HumanitiesSan Ignacio de Loyola UniversityLimaPeru

Personalised recommendations