Measuring Tourism: Methods, Indicators, and Needs

  • Rodolfo BaggioEmail author


This chapter examines the wicked problem of adequately measuring tourism in its many facets. This concise survey examines the main techniques used today for assessing tourism flows and their direct, indirect, and induced effects on environmental, socio-cultural, and economic macro-scenarios. Demand and supply evaluations are explored through the description of traditional time series and econometric models and the main national tourism statistical measurements together with cutting-edge techniques such as the artificial intelligence methods that use the most recent advances in computer science. The important task of estimating the impacts of tourism related activities on the socio-economic environment is discussed by looking at the most popular methods such as the Input-Output model, the Social Accounting Matrix, the Computable General Equilibrium model and the Tourism Satellite Account. Moreover, computerised numerical simulation techniques are called into play for their capability to provide useful insights and outcomes in complex and uncertain situations, typical of the tourism domain.

The analysis discusses the main shortcomings of all these approaches. In an increasingly complicated and fast changing World, many of the foundations up to now considered relatively set have seen, in recent times, a number of disruptive modifications. As a consequence our traditional approaches have lost most of their validity and seem no more fully able to provide useful and reliable insights. Methodological and instrumental changes are sketched as a possible answer to the question.


Tourism measurement Demand supply Impact of tourism Quantitative methods Numerical simulations Artificial intelligence 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bocconi UniversityMilanItaly

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