Advertisement

Mediastinal Non-neoplastic Conditions

  • Beatrice Sacconi
  • Giada Valente
  • Mariaelena Occhipinti
Chapter

Abstract

Mediastinum can be interested by a variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions, mostly affecting the anterior mediastinum. Mediastinal disease can be suspected at conventional radiography and further investigated at CT and MRI. This chapter is focused on non-neoplastic conditions; congenital diseases are discussed in the first part, such as oesophageal duplication cysts, bronchogenic, thymic and pericardial cysts and other less common entities. In the second part of the chapter we focus on acquired conditions, such as infectious/inflammatory, vascular and iatrogenic diseases.

Keywords

Mediastinum Mediastinal non-neoplastic conditions Mediastinal congenital cysts Fibrosing mediastinitis Thymic hyperplasia 

References

  1. 1.
    Whitten CR, Khan S, Munneke GJ, Grubnic S. A diagnostic approach to mediastinal abnormalities. Whitten RadioGraphics. 2007;27:657–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Juanpere S, Cañete N, Ortuño P, Martínez S, Sanchez G, Bernado L. A diagnostic approach to the mediastinal masses. Insights Imaging. 2013;4(1):29–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McAdams HP, Kirejczyk WM, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, et al. Bronchogenic cyst: imaging features with clinical and histopathologic correlation. Radiology. 2000;217(2):441–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lyon RD, Mcadams HP. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst: demonstration of a fluid-fluid level at MR imaging. Radiology. 1993;186(2):427–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Callahan MJ, Taylor GA. CT of the pediatric esophagus. Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(5):1391–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown LR, Aughenbaugh GL. Masses of the anterior mediastinum: CT and MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;157(6):1171–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jeung MY, Gasser B, Gangi A, Bogorin A, Charneau D, Wihlm JM, Dietemann JL, Roy C. Imaging of cystic masses of the mediastinum. Radiographics. 22(Suppl 1):S79–93.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang ZJ, Reddy GP, Gotway MB, et al. CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 2003;23(Suppl 1):S167–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor GA, Atalabi OM, Estroff JA. Imaging of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39(1):1–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Temizöz O, Gençhellaç H, Yekeler E, et al. Prevalence and MDCT characteristics of asymptomatic Bochdalek hernia in adult population. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2010;16(1):52–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gray H, Vogl W, et al. Gray’s atlas of anatomy: Churchill Livingstone; 2008. ISBN:044306721XGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saldana MJ, editor. Pathology of the mediastinum (chapter). Pathology of pulmonary disease. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company; 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rossi SE, McAdams HP, Rosado-de-Christenson ML, Franks TJ, Galvin JR. Fibrosing mediastinitis. Radiographics. 2001;21(3):737–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller BH, Rosado-de-christenson ML, Mcadams HP, et al. Thoracic sarcoidosis: radiologic–pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1995;15(2):421–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Higuchi T, Takahashi N, Shiotani M, et al. Characteristics and CT features of subcarinal air collections/main bronchial diverticula. Eur Radiol. 2010;20(1):95–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sebastià C, Pallisa E, Quiroga S, et al. Aortic dissection: diagnosis and follow-up with helical CT. Radiographics. 19(1):45–60.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lai V, Tsang WK, Chan WC, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of mediastinal width measurement on posteroanterior and anteroposterior chest radiographs in the depiction of acute nontraumatic thoracic aortic dissection. Emerg Radiol. 2012;19(4):309–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Lacey G, Morley S, et al. The chest X-Ray: a survival guide. London: Saunders Ltd.; 2008. ISBN:0702030465Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lepage MA, Quint LE, Sonnad SS, et al. Aortic dissection: CT features that distinguish true lumen from false lumen. Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177(1):207–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pereles FS, Mccarthy RM, Baskaran V, et al. Thoracic aortic dissection and aneurysm: evaluation with nonenhanced true FISP MR angiography in less than 4 minutes. Radiology. 2002;223(1):270–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beatrice Sacconi
    • 1
  • Giada Valente
    • 1
  • Mariaelena Occhipinti
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopatological SciencesSapienza—University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto IRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations