Advertisement

Diabetic Neuropathy

  • Solomon TesfayeEmail author
  • Jing Wu
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Diabetes book series (CDI)

Abstract

Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and a cause of considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses several neuropathic syndromes, the commonest of which is diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the main initiating factor for foot ulceration. Some patients with peripheral neuropathy may experience troublesome neuropathic pain that is difficult to treat. DPN is also associated with autonomic neuropathy that can involve almost all the systems of the body and may have devastating consequences such as sudden death. This chapter looks at the common neuropathic complications of diabetes and their treatment.

Keywords

Diabetic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy Painful neuropathy Mononeuropathy Carpal tunnel syndrome Proximal motor neuropathy Gastroparesis 

References

  1. 1.
    Tesfaye S, Vileikyte L, Rayman G, Sindrup S, Perkins B, Baconja M, Vinik A, Boulton A, on behalf of the Toronto Expert Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy. Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Consensus Recommendations on Diagnosis, Assessment and Management. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011;27:629–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas PK. Metabolic neuropathy. J Roy Coll Phys (Lond). 1973;7:154–74.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pop-Busui R, Boulton AJ, Feldman EL, Bril V, Freeman R, Malik RA, Sosenko JM, Ziegler D. Diabetic neuropathy: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(1):136–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dyck PJ, Kratz KM, Karnes JL, Litchy WJ, Klein R, Pach JM, Wilson DM, O’Brien PC, Melton LJ. The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Neurology. 1993;43:817–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ. The epidemiology of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Reviews. 1999;7:245–52.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tesfaye S, Stephens L, Stephenson J, Fuller J, Platter ME, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, The WJD. prevalence of diabetic neuropathy and its relation to glycaemic control and potential risk factors: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabetologia. 1996;39:1377–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton SEM, Witte D, Ward JD, Fuller J. Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy. New Engl J Med. 2005;352:341–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Watkins PJ, Edmonds ME. Clinical features of diabetic neuropathy. In: Pickup J, Williams G (eds.). Textbook of diabetes vol. 2. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1997;50.1–50.20.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andreassen CS, Jakobsen J, Ringgaard S, Ejskjaer N, Andersen H. Accelerated atrophy of lower leg and foot muscles—a follow-up study of long-term diabetic polyneuropathy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diabetologia. 2009;52(6):1182–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baron R, Binder A, Wasner G. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Aug;9(8):807–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jensen TS, Gottrup H, Sindrup SH, Bach FW. The clinical picture of neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;429:1–3):1-11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Watkins PJ. Pain and diabetic neuropathy. Br Med J. 1984;288:168–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tesfaye S, Price D. Therapeutic approaches in diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In: AJM B, editor. Diabetic Neuropathy. Carnforth: Marius Press; 1997. p. 159–81.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tesfaye S, Boulton AJ, Dickenson A. Mechanisms and management of diabetic painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy: bench to bedside. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(9):2456–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McDermott AM, Toelle TR, Rowbotham DJ, Schaefer CP, Dukes EM. The burden of neuropathic pain: results from a cross-sectional survey. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(2):127–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gore M, Brandenburg NA, Hoffman DL, Tai KS, Stacey B. Burden of illness in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: the patients’ perspectives. J Pain. 2006;7(12):892–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Selvarajah D, Cash T, Sankar A, Thomas L, Davies J, Cachia E, Gandhi R, Wilkinson ID, Wilkinson N, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S. The contributors of emotional distress in painful diabetic neuropathy. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2014;11(4):218–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ewing DJ, Martyn CN, Young RJ, Clarke BF. The value of cardiovascular autonomic function tests: ten years experience in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1985;8:491–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boulton AJ, Kirsner RS, Vileikyte L. Clinical practice. Neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(1):48–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ward JD. The diabetic leg. Diabetologia. 1982;22:141–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tesfaye S. Diabetic neuropathy: achieving best practice. Br J Vasc Dis. 2003;3:112–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rajbhandari SM, Jenkins R, Davies C, Tesfaye S. Charcot neuroarthropathy in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1085–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ward JD, Simms JM, Knight G, Boulton AJM, Sandler DA. Venous distension in the diabetic neuropathic foot (physical sign of arterio-venous shunting). J Roy Soc Med. 1983;76:1011–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boulton AJM, Scarpello JHB, Ward JD. Venous oxygenation in the diabetic neuropathic foot: evidence of arterial venous shunting? Diabetologia. 1982;22:6–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edmonds ME, Archer AG, Watkins PJ. Ephedrine: a new treatment for diabetic neuropathic oedema. Lancet. 1983;i:548–51.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee JA, Halpern EM, Lovblom LE, Yeung E, Bril V, Perkins BA. Reliability and validity of a point-of-care sural nerve conduction device for identification of diabetic neuropathy. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e86515.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Selvarajah D, Cash T, Davies J, Sankar A, Rao G, Grieg M, Pallai S, Gandhi R, Wilkinson ID, Tesfaye S. SUDOSCAN: a simple, rapid, and objective method with potential for screening for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 12;10(10):e0138224.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tavakoli M, Begum P, McLaughlin J, Malik RA. Corneal confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2015;52(3):363–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Archer AG, Watkins PJ, Thomas PJ, Sharma AK, Payan J. The natural history of acute painful neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. J Nurol Neorosurg Psychiatr. 1983;46:491–6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ellenberg M. Diabetic neuropathic cachexia. Diabetes. 1974;23:418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Devigili G, Tugnoli V, Penza P, Camozzi F, Lombardi R, Melli G, Broglio L, Granieri E, Lauria G. The diagnostic criteria for small fibre neuropathy: from symptoms to neuropathology. Brain. 2008;131:1912–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tesfaye S, Malik R, Harris N, Jakubowski J, Mody C, Rennie IG, Ward JD. Arteriovenous shunting and proliferating new vessels in acute painful neuropathy of rapid glycaemic control (insulin neuritis). Diabetologia. 1996;39:329–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gibbons CH, Freeman R. Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes: an acute, iatrogenic complication of diabetes. Brain. 2015;138:43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Said G, Slama G, Selva J. Progressive centripital degeneration of of axons in small-fibre type diabetic polyneuropathy. A clinical and pathological study. Brain. 1983;106:791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vinik AI, Park TS, Stansberry KB, Pittenger GL. Diabetic neuropathies. Diabetologia. 2000;43:957–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Singleton JR, Smith AG, Bromberg MB. Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2001 Aug;24(8):1448–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Veves A, Young MJ, Manes C, et al. Differences in peripheral and autonomic nerve function measurements in painful and painless neuropathy: a Clinical study. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:1200–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kennedy WR, Wendelschafer-Crabb G, Johnson T. Quantitation of epidermal nerves in diabetic neuropathy. Neurology. 1996 Oct;47(4):1042–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ebenezer GJ, Hauer P, Gibbons C, McArthur JC, Polydefkis M. Assessment of epidermal nerve fibers: a new diagnostic and predictive tool for peripheral neuropathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007;66(12):1059–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matikainen E, Juntunen J. Diabetic neuropathy: Epidemiological, pathogenetic, and clinical aspects with special emphasis on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh). 1984;262:89–94.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garland H. Diabetic amyotrophy. Br Med J. 1955;2:1287–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coppack SW, Watkins PJ. The natural history of femoral neuropathy. QJ Med. 1991;79:307–13.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Casey EB, Harrison MJG. Diabetic amyotrophy: a follow-up study. Br Med J. 1972;1:656.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bastron JA, Thomas JE. Diabetic polyradiculoneuropathy: clinical and electromyographic findings in 105 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 1981;56:725–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Said G, Goulon-Goeau C, Lacroix C, Moulonguet A. Nerve biopsy findings in different patterns of proximal diabetic neuropathy. Ann Neurol. 1994;33:559–69.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Laughlin RS, Dyck PJ. Diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;126:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Asbury AK, Aldredge H, Hershberg R, Fisher CM. Oculomotor palsy in diabetes mellitus: a clinicopathological study. Brain. 1970;93:555–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zorilla E, Kozak GP. Ophthalmoplegia in diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1967;67:968–76.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Goldstein JE, Cogan DG. Diabetic ophthalmoplegia with special reference to the pupil. Arch Ophthalmol. 1960;64:592–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Leslie RDG, Ellis C. Clinical course following diabetic ocular palsy. Postgrad Med J. 1978;54:791–2.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dreyfuss PM, Hakim S, Adams RD. Diabetic ophthalmoplegia. Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 1957;77:337–49.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ellenberg M. Diabetic truncal mononeuropathy—a new clincal syndrome. Diabetes Care. 1978;1:10–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boulton AJM, Angus E, Ayyar DR, Weiss R. Diabetic thoracic polyradiculopathy presenting as abdominal swelling. BMJ. 1984;289:798–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Obrosova IG. Diabetic painful and insensate neuropathy: pathogenesis and potential treatments. Neurotherapeutics. 2009;6(4):638–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Malik RA, Newrick PG, Sharma AK, Jennings A, Ah-See AK, Mayhew TM, Jakubowski J, Boulton AJM, Ward JD. Microangiopathy in human diabetic neuropathy: relationship between capillary abnormalities and the severity of neuropathy. Diabetologia. 1989;32:92–102.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bradley JL, Thomas PK, King RH, Muddle JR, Ward JD, Tesfaye S, Boulton AJM, Tsigos C, Young RJ. Myelinated nerve fibre regeneration in diabetic sensory polyneuropathy: correlation with type of diabetes. Acta Neuropathol-Berl. 1995;90:403–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cameron NE, Eaton SE, Cotter MA, Tesfaye S. Vascular factors and metabolic interactions in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1973–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pacher P, Obrosova IG, Mabley JG, Szabó C. Role of nitrosative stress and peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Emerging new therapeutical strategies. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(3):267–75.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Figueroa-Romero C, Sadidi M, Feldman EL. Mechanisms of disease: the oxidative stress theory of diabetic neuropathy. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2008;9(4):301–14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Szabo C. Role of nitrosative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular dysfunction. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156(5):713–27.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Obrosova IG, Drel VR, Pacher P, Ilnytska O, Wang ZQ, Stevens MJ, Yorek MA. Ox.idative-nitrosative stress and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy: the relation is revisited. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3435–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fagerberg SE. Studies on the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. II. Relation between clinically demonstrable neuropathy and patho-anatomic investigation of nerve. Acta Med Scand. 1956 Dec 31;156(4):295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Giannini C, Dyck PJ. Ultrastructural morphometric abnormalities of sural nerve endoneurial microvessels in diabetes mellitus. Ann Neurol. 1994;36:408–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Malik RA, Tesfaye S, Thompson SD, Veves A, Boulton AJM, Ward JD. Endoneurial localisation of microvascular damage in human diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia. 1993;36:454–9.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tesfaye S, Harris N, Jakubowski J, et al. Impaired blood flow and arterio-venous shunting in human diabetic neuropathy: a novel technique of nerve photography and fluorescein angiography. Diabetologia. 1993;36:1266–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Newrick PG, Wilson AJ, Jakubowski J, Boulton AJM, Ward JD. Sural nerve oxygen tension in diabetes. Br Med J. 1986;193:1053–4.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tesfaye S, Harris N, Wilson RM, Ward JD. Exercise induced conduction velocity increment: a marker of impaired blood flow in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia. 1992;35:155–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Young MJ, Veves A, Smith JV, Walker MG, Boulton AJM. Restoring lower limb blood flow improves conduction velocity in diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1995;38:1051–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Reja A, Tesfaye S, Harris ND, Ward JD. Is ACE inhibition with lisinopril helpful in diabetic neuropathy? Diabet Med. 1995;12:307–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Malik RA, Williamson S, Abbott CA, Carrington AL, Iqbal J, Schady W, Boulton AJM. Effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor trandalopril on human diabetic neuropathy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1998;352:1978–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Witte DR, Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton SEM, Kempler P, Fuller JH, the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group. Risk factors for cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2005;48:164–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Freeman R. Clinical practice. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(6):615–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Horowitz M, Fraser R. Disordered gastric motor function in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1994;37:543–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lin Z, Forster J, Sarosiek I, McCallum RW. Treatment of diabetic gastroparesis by high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1071–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sheehy TW. Diabetic gustatory sweating. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86:15–7.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Urman JD, Bobrove AM. Diabetic gustatory sweating successfully treated with topical glycopyrrolate. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:877–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shaw JE, Abbott CA, Tindle K, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of topical glycopyrrolate, the first specific treatment for diabetic gustatory sweating. Diabetologia. 1997 Mar;40(3):299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Naumann M. Evidence-based medicine: botulinum toxin in focal hyperhidrosis. J Neurol. 2001;248(suppl 1):31–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tesfaye S, Kempler P. Painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia. 2005;48:805–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tesfaye S. Advances in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2009 Jun;3(2):136–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:561–8.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 30;348(5):383–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Smith AG, Russell J, Feldman EL, Goldstein J, Peltier A, Smith S, Hamwi J, Pollari D, Bixby B, Howard J, Singleton JR. Lifestyle intervention for pre-diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1294–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Singleton JR, Smith AG, Marcus RL. Exercise as therapy for diabetic and prediabetic neuropathy. Curr Diab Rep. 2015 Dec;15(12):120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Boulton AJM, Drury J, Clarke B, Ward JD. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1982;5:386–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Obtained from www.cochrane.org/CD008242/SYMPT_amitriptyline-for-neuropathic-pain-and-fibromyalgia-in-adults.
  87. 87.
    Kajdasz DK, Iyengar S, Desaiah D, Backonja MM, Farrar JT, Fishbain DA, Jensen TS, Rowbotham MC, Sang CN, Ziegler D, McQuay HJ. Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: evidence-based findings from post hoc analysis of three multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies. Clin Ther. 2007;29:536–46.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rowbotham MC, Goli V, Kunz NR, Lei D. Venlafaxine extended release in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain. 2004 Aug;110:697–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Backonja MM, Beydoun A, Edwards KR, Schwartz SL, Fonseca V, Hes M, LaMoreaux L, Garofalo E. Gabapentin for symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1998;280:1831–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Freeman R, Durso-Decruz E, Emir B. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of pregabalin treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: findings from seven randomised, controlled trials across a range of doses. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1448–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ziegler D, Nowak H, Kempler P, Vargha P, Low PA. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic Polyneuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid: a meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2004;21:114–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, Edelman S, Greene D, Raskin P, Donofrio P, Cornblath D, Sachdeo R, Siu CO, Kamin M. Double-blind randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6):1842–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Watson CP, Moulin D, Watt-Watson J, Gordon A, Eisenhoffer J. Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy. Pain. 2003 Sep;105(1–2):71–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Capsaicin Study Group. The effect of treatment with capsaicin on daily activities of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:159–65.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Simpson DM, Robinson-Papp J, Van J, Stoker M, Jacobs H, Snijder RJ, Schregardus DS, Long SK, Lambourg B, Katz N. Capsaicin 8% patch in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Pain. 2017;18(1):42–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
  97. 97.
    Vinik AI, Perrot S, Vinik EJ, Pazdera L, Jacobs H, Stoker M, Long SK, Snijder RJ, van der Stoep M, Ortega E, Katz N. Capsaicin 8% patch repeat treatment plus standard of care (SOC) versus SOC alone in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a randomised, 52-week, open-label, safety study. BMC Neurol. 2016;16(1):251.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Anand P, Bley K. Topical capsaicin for pain management: therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of the new high-concentration capsaicin 8% patch. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107(4):490–502.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kastrup J, et al. Treatment of chronic painful neuropathy with intravenous lidocaine infusion. Br Med J. 1986;292:173.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Attal N, Cruccu G, Baron R, Haanpää M, Hansson P, Jensen TS, Nurmikko T, European Federation of Neurological Societies. EFNS guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain: 2010 revision. Eur J Neurol. 2010 Sep;17:1113–e88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings Clinical guideline [CG173] https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG173.
  102. 102.
    Bril V, England J, Franklin GM, Backonja M, Cohen J, Del Toro D, Feldman E, Iverson DJ, Perkins B, Russell JW, Zochodne D, American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2011;76:1758–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bansal D, Bhansali A, Hota D, Chakrabarti A, Dutta P. Amitriptyline vs pregabalin in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2009;26:1019–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kaur H, Hota D, Bhansali A, Dutta P, Bansal D, Chakrabarti A. Comparative trial to evaluate amitriptyline and duloxetine in painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:818–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Quilici S, Chancellor J, Löthgren M, Simon D, Said G, Le TK, Garcia-Cebrian A, Monz B. Meta-analysis of duloxetine vs. pregabalin and gabapentin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. BMC Neurol. 2009 Feb 10;9:6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Jackson AC, Houlden RL. Nortriptyline and gabapentin, alone and in combination for neuropathic pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled crossover trial. Lancet. 2009;374:1252–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gilron I, Bailey JM, Tu D, Holden RR, Weaver DF, Houlden RL. Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1324–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tesfaye S, Wilhelm S, Lledo A, Schacht A, Tölle T, Bouhassira D, Cruccu G, Skljarevski V, Freynhagen R. Duloxetine and pregabalin: high-dose monotherapy or their combination? The “COMBO-DN study”—a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain. 2013;154(12):2616–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tesfaye S, Watt J, Benbow SJ, Pang KA, Miles J, MacFarlane IA. Electrical spinal cord stimulation for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Lancet. 1996;348(9043):1698–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyXiangya Hospital, Central South UniversityChangshaChina

Personalised recommendations