Chimerism pp 81-103 | Cite as

Blood Typing Discrepancies

  • Opal L. Reddy
  • Dawn C. Ward
  • Andrea M. McGonigleEmail author


Blood typing discrepancies may be seen following both congenital and acquired chimerism and are most commonly encountered through blood bank testing that demonstrates ambiguous red blood cell (RBC) typing results. Congenital chimerism includes twin (placenta-associated) chimerism, dispermic chimerism, and tetragametic chimerism. Acquired chimerism may be the result of feto-maternal hemorrhage or may be iatrogenic, as a result of blood transfusion, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), or in vitro fertilization. When a chimeric etiology is suspected from laboratory testing, a thorough review of the clinical history is essential to identifying the likely cause. Further evaluation, particularly in cases of suspected congenital chimerism, may also include extended blood bank testing, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, and molecular studies.


Blood typing Discrepancy Chimerism Twin Dispermic Tetragametic Mixed field 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Opal L. Reddy
    • 1
  • Dawn C. Ward
    • 1
  • Andrea M. McGonigle
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Wing-Kwai and Alice Lee-Tsing Chung Transfusion Service, Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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