Advertisement

Chimerism pp 33-48 | Cite as

Transplantation and Transfusion

  • Joel N. Kniep
Chapter

Abstract

Chimeras are commonly created as part of medical treatment via organ transplantation and blood product transfusion. Microchimerism has been found in patients after receiving blood products. These transient cell populations generally become undetectable in immunocompetent patients within seven days of transfusion. Extended longevity of donor leukocytes is seen in transfused trauma patient including combat casualties and can be detected decades posttransfusion.

Keywords

Microchimerism Trauma Transfusion Transplantation HSCT Solid organ 

References

  1. 1.
    Rinkevich B. Human natural chimerism: an acquired character or a vestige of evolution? Hum Immunol. 2001;62:651–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Billingham RE. The biology of graft-versus-host reactions. Harvey Lect. 1966;62:21–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nadarajah L, Ashman N, Thuraisingham R, Barber C, Allard S, Green L. Literature review of passenger lymphocyte syndrome following renal transplantation and two case reports. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:1594–600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Audet M, Panaro F, Piardi T, Huang P, Cag M, Cinqualbre J, Wolf P. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome and liver transplantation. Clin Dev Immunol. 2008;2008:715769.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/715769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Colvin M, Smith JM, Skeans MA, Edwards LB, Uccellini K, Snyder JJ, Israni AK, Kasiske BL. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: heart. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):286–356.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Reyes JD. Intestinal transplantation. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2006;15:228–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith JM, Skeans MA, Horslen SP, Edwards EB, Harper AM, Snyder JJ, Israni AK, Kasiske BL. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: intestine. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):252–85.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hart A, Smith JM, Skeans MA, Gustafson SK, Stewart DE, Cherikh WS, Wainright JL, Kucheryavaya A, Woodbury M, Snyder JJ, Kasiske BL, Israni AK. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: kidney. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):21–116.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim WR, Lake JR, Smith JM, Skeans MA, Schladt DP, Edwards EB, Harper AM, Wainright JL, Snyder JJ, Israni AK, Kasiske BL. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: liver. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):174–251.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang JD, Larson JJ, Watt KD, Allen AM, Wiesner RH, Gores GJ, Roberts LR, Heimbach JA, Leise MD. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common indication for liver transplantation and placement on the waitlist in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15:767–775.e3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2016.11.034.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Valapour M, Skeans MA, Smith JM, Edwards LB, Cherikh WS, Uccellini K, Israni AK, Snyder JJ, Kasiske BL. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: lung. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):357–424.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kandaswamy R, Stock PG, Gustafson SK, Skeans MA, Curry MA, Prentice MA, Israni AK, Snyder JJ, Kasiske BL. OPTN/SRTR 2015 annual data report: pancreas. Am J Transplant. 2017;17(Suppl 1):117–73.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.14125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Majhail NS, Farnia SH, Carpenter PA, Champlin RE, Crawford S, Marks DI, Omel JL, Orchard PJ, Palmer J, Saber W, Savani BN, Veys PA, Bredeson CN, Giralt SA, LeMaistre CF. Indications for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: guidelines from the American society for blood and marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21:1863–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.07.032.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brink JG, Hassoulas J. The first human heart transplant and further advances in cardiac transplantation at Groote Schuur Hospital and the University of Cape Town. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2009;20:31–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Daebritz SH, Schmoeckel M, Mair H, Kozlik-Feldmann R, Wittmann G, Kowalski C, Kaczmarek I, Reichart B. Blood type incompatible cardiac transplantation in young infants. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:339–43; discussion 343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Urschel S, Larsen IM, Kirk R, Flett J, Burch M, Shaw N, Birnbaum J, Netz H, Pahl E, Matthews KL, Chinnock R, Johnston JK, Derkatz K, West LJ. ABO-incompatible heart transplantation in early childhood: an international multicenter study of clinical experiences and limits. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32:285–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2012.11.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bergenfeldt H, Andersson B, Bućin D, Stehlik J, Edwards L, Rådegran G, Nilsson J. Outcomes after ABO-incompatible heart transplantation in adults: a registry study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:892–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2015.01.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schlitt HJ, Hundrieser J, Hisanaga M, Uthoff K, Karck M, Wahlers T, Wonigeit K, Pichlmayr R. Patterns of donor-type microchimerism after heart transplantation. Lancet. 1994;343:1469–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pham SM, Rao AS, Zeevi A, Kormos RL, McCurry KR, Hattler BG, Fung JJ, Starzl TE, Griffith BP. A clinical trial combining donor bone marrow infusion and heart transplantation: intermediate-term results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;119:673–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crespo-Leiro MG, Hermida-Prieto M, Rodriguez JA, Muñiz J, Barral S, Paniagua MJ, Hermida LF, Juffé A, Castro-Beiras A. Microchimerism after heart transplantation: prevalence, predisposing factors, natural history, and prognosis. Transplant Proc. 2002;34:161–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ramsey G. Red cell antibodies arising from solid organ transplants. Transfusion. 1991;31:76–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aujayeb A, Lordan J, Kilner M, Wallis J. The passenger lymphocyte syndrome--experience from a cardiothoracic transplant unit. Transfus Med. 2014;24:423–5.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tme.12158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takahashi K, Saito K. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. Transplant Rev. 2013;27:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2012.07.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zachary AA, Leffell MS. HLA mismatching strategies for solid organ transplantation – a balancing act. Front Immunol. 2016;7:575.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00575.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sorensen JB, Grant WJ, Belnap LP, Stinson J, Fuller TC. Transplantation of ABO group A2 kidneys from living donors into group O and B recipients. Am J Transplant. 2001;1:296–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M, Zeevi A, Ramos H, Terasaki P, Rudert WA, Kocova M, Ricordi C, Ildstad S, Murase N. Chimerism and donor-specific nonreactivity 27 to 29 years after kidney allotransplantation. Transplantation. 1993;55:1272–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Caillat-Zucman S, Legendre C, Suberbielle C, Bodemer C, Noël LH, Kreis H, Bach JF. Microchimerism frequency two to thirty years after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Hum Immunol. 1994;41:91–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Suberbielle C, Caillat-Zucman S, Legendre C, Bodemer C, Noël LH, Kreis H, Bach JF. Peripheral microchimerism in long-term cadaveric-kidney allograft recipients. Lancet. 1994;343:1468–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang J, Tong KL, Li PK, Chan AY, Yeung CK, Pang CC, Wong TY, Lee KC, Lo YM. Presence of donor- and recipient-derived DNA in cell-free urine samples of renal transplantation recipients: urinary DNA chimerism. Clin Chem. 1999;45:1741–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sakamoto K, Arita S, Sakamaki T, Yamada H, Kusume K, Yoshida T, Okazaki Y, Yamada K, Gunji Y, Shimada H, Ochiai T, Kashiwabara H, Yokoyama T. Better clinical outcome in renal transplant recipients with peripheral blood microchimerism. Transplant Proc. 2000;32:1793–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hakemi M, Najafi I, Ganji MR, Khosravi F, Nikbin B. Peripheral blood microchimerism in female renal recipients from male donors. Transplant Proc. 2001;33:2852–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Crispim JC, Wastowski IJ, Faggioni LP, Costa R, Saber L, Donadi EA. Microchimerism evaluation in recipients of living related or unrelated deceased allograft renal transplants. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:2828–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saraji A, Pourmand G, Mehrsai A, Taherimahmodi M, Nikoobakht M, Asadpour A, Nikbin B, Tajik N, Emamzadeh A. Microchimerism and renal transplantation: doubt still persists. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:948–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fourtounas C, Spyridonidis A, Dousdampanis P, Savidaki E, Kalliakmani P, Papachristou E, Goumenos D, Vlachojannis JG. Microchimerism in peripheral blood and urine in renal transplant recipients: preliminary results. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:3434–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.03.171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ohtsuka Y, Sakemi T, Ichigi Y, Tanaka T, Nakamura K. A case of chronic graft-versus-host disease following living-related donor kidney transplantation. Nephron. 1998;78:215–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kato T, Yazawa K, Madono K, Saito J, Hosomi M, Itoh K. Acute graft-versus-host-disease in kidney transplantation: case report and review of literature. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3949–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2009.05.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guo Y, Ding S, Guo H, Li S, Lu X, Chen Z, Chen ZK, Ming C, Gong N. Graft-versus-host-disease after kidney transplantation: a case report and literature review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7333.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rummler S, Bauschke A, Bärthel E, Jütte H, Maier K, Ziehm P, Malessa C, Settmacher U. Current techniques for ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation. World J Transplant. 2016;6:548–55.  https://doi.org/10.5500/wjt.v6.i3.548.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee CF, Cheng CH, Wang YC, Soong RS, Wu TH, Chou HS, Wu TJ, Chan KM, Lee CS, Lee WC. Adult living donor liver transplantation across ABO-incompatibility. Medicine. 2015;94:e1796.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001796.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M, Ricordi C, Ildstad S, Terasaki PI, Murase N, Kendall RS, Kocova M, Rudert WA, Zeevi A, Van Thiel D. Chimerism after liver transplantation for type IV glycogen storage disease and type 1 Gaucher’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:745–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Norris S, Lawler M, McCann S, Hegarty J, O’Farrelly C. Donor type microchimerism is an infrequent event following liver transplantation and is not associated with graft acceptance. Hepatology. 1997;26:848–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Joseph JM, Mosimann F, Tiercy JM, Roux E, Cerottini JP, Gillet M, Aubert V. PCR confirmation of microchimerism and diagnosis of graft versus host disease after liver transplantation. Transpl Int. 1999;12:468–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nierhoff D, Horvath HC, Mytilineos J, Golling M, Bud O, Klar E, Opelz G, Voso MT, Ho AD, Haas R, Hohaus S. Microchimerism in bone marrow–derived CD341 cells of patients after liver transplantation. Blood. 2000;96:763–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Araújo MB, Leonardi LS, Boin IF, Leonardi MI, Magna LA, Donadi EA, Kraemer MH. Development of donor-specific microchimerism in liver transplant recipient with hla-drb1 and -dqb1 mismatch related to rejection episodes. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:953–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smith DM, Agura E, Netto G, Collins R, Levy M, Goldstein R, Christensen L, Baker J, Altrabulsi B, Osowski L, McCormack J, Fichtel L, Dawson DB, Domiati-Saad R, Stone M, Klintmalm G. Liver transplant-associated graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation. 2003;75:118–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lerut J, Sanchez-Fueyo A. An appraisal of tolerance in liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:1774–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Subramanian V, Ramachandran S, Klein C, Wellen JR, Shenoy S, Chapman WC, Mohanakumar T. ABO-incompatible organ transplantation. Int J Immunogenet. 2012;39:282–90.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-313X.2012.01101.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith DM, Agura ED, Ausloos K, Ring WS, Domiati-Saad R, Klintmalm GB. Graft-vs-host disease as a complication of lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:1175–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fossi A, Voltolini L, Filippi R, Luzzi L, Pasini FL, Marchi B, Gotti G, Rottoli P. Severe acute graft versus host disease after lung transplant: report of a case successfully treated with high dose corticosteroids. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;28:508–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2009.01.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Horlait G, Bulpa P, Evrard P. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome mimicking hemolytic uremic syndrome after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013;32(2):271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bittmann I, Dose T, Baretton GB, Müller C, Schwaiblmair M, Kur F, Löhrs U. Cellular chimerism of the lung after transplantation. an interphase cytogenetic study. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;115:525–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Paantjens AW, van de Graaf EA, Heerkens HD, Kwakkel-van Erp JM, Hoefnagel T, van Kessel DA, van den Bosch JM, Otten HG. Chimerism of dendritic cell subsets in peripheral blood after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:691–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2011.01.706.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rudolph EN, Dunn TB, Mauer D, Noreen H, Sutherland DE, Kandaswamy R, Finger EB. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ matching in pancreas transplantation: effect on graft rejection and survival. Am J Transplant. 2016;16:2401–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.13734.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chang JW, Sageshima J, Ciancio G, Mattiazzi A, Chen L, Tsai HL, Ruiz P, Burke GW. Successful treatment for graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation. Clin Transpl. 2014;28:217–22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weinstein A, Dexter D, KuKuruga DL, Philosophe B, Hess J, Klassen D. Acute graft-versus-host disease in pancreas transplantation: a comparison of two case presentations and a review of the literature. Transplantation. 2006;82:127–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weng FL, Pancoska C, Patel AM. Fatal graft-versus-host disease presenting as fever of unknown origin in a pancreas-after-kidney transplant recipient. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:881–3.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02150.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guy S, Potluri A, Xiao G, Vega ML, Malat G, Ranganna K, Cusack C, Doyle AM. Successful treatment of acute severe graft-versus-host-disease in a pancreas-after-kidney transplant recipient: case report. Transplant Proc. 2014;46:2446–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.06.049.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Osband AJ, Laskow DA, Mann RA. Treatment of acute graft-vs-host disease after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:3894–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.08.058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rossi AP, Bone BA, Edwards AR, Parker MK, Delos Santos RB, Hagopian J, Lockwood C, Musiek A, Klein CL, Brennan DC. Graft-versus-host disease after simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Transplant. 2014;14:2651–6.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.12862.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Asari S, Matsumoto I, Toyama H, Shinzeki M, Goto T, Tanaka M, Shirakawa S, Yamashita H, Ajiki T, Fukumoto T, Ku Y. Acute graft-versus-host disease following simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: report of a case. Surg Today. 2015;45:1567–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00595-014-1069-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kuhr CS, Nelson K, Gaur L, Marsh CL. Induced microchimerism by spleen reperfusion affords no immunological advantage in pancreas transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:878–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hurtarte-Sandoval AR, Navarro-Cabello MD, Álvarez-Rivas MA, Robles-López AI, Salmerón-Rodríguez MD, Agüera-Morales ML, Rodríguez-Benot A, Aljama-García P. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a case report of an unusual cause of alloimmune hemolytic anemia. Transplant Proc. 2015;47:2667–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.08.042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Seltsam A, Hell A, Heymann G, Salama A. Donor-derived alloantibodies and passenger lymphocyte syndrome in two of four patients who received different organs from the same donor. Transfusion. 2001;41:365–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sindhi R, Landmark J, Stratta RJ, Cushing K, Taylor RJ. Humoral graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation with an ABO-compatible and Rh-nonidentical donor. Case report and a rationale for preoperative screening. Transplantation. 1996;61:1414–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cai J, Qing X, Wu G, Everly M, Cheng E, Terasaki P. Is ABO-compatible but non-identical intestinal transplant comparable to ABO-identical transplant? An analysis of the UNOS registry. SOJ Immunol. 2015;3(5):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.15226/soji/3/5/00139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fan DM, Zhao QC, Wang WZ, Shi H, Wang M, Chen DL, Zheng JY, Li MB, Wu GS. Successful ABO-incompatible living-related intestinal transplantation: a 2-year follow-up general. Am J Transplant. 2015;15(5):1432.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajt.13121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cai J. Intestine and multivisceral transplantation in the United States: a report of 20-year national registry data. Clin Transpl. 1990;2009:83–101.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Walther A, Coots A, Nathan J, Kocoshis S, Tiao G. Physiology of the small intestine after resection and transplant. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013;29:153–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0b013e32835c9c9d.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mazariegos GV, Abu-Elmagd K, Jaffe R, Bond G, Sindhi R, Martin L, Macedo C, Peters J, Girnita A, Reyes J. Graft versus host disease in intestinal transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:1459–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Iwaki Y, Starzl TE, Yagihashi A, Taniwaki S, Abu-Elmagd K, Tzakis A, Fung J, Todo S. Replacement of donor lymphoid tissue in small-bowel transplants. Lancet. 1991;337:818–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Panaro F, DeChristopher PJ, Rondelli D, Testa G, Sankary H, Popescu M, Benedetti E. Severe hemolytic anemia due to passenger lymphocytes after living-related bowel transplant. Clin Transpl. 2004;18:332–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
    Hashem H, Lazarus HM. Double umbilical cord blood transplantation: relevance of persistent mixed-unit chimerism. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015;21:612–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.09.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Horowitz MM, Gale RP, Sondel PM, Goldman JM, Kersey J, Kolb HJ, Rimm AA, Ringdén O, Rozman C, Speck B, Truitt RL, Zwaan FE, Bortin MM. Graft-versus-leukemia reactions after bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1990;75:555–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
  85. 85.
    Schechter GP, Soehnlen F, McFarland W. Lymphocyte response to blood transfusion in man. N Engl J Med. 1972;287:1169–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schechter GP, Whang-Peng J, McFarland W. Circulation of donor lymphocytes after blood transfusion in man. Blood. 1977;49:651–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Adams PT, Davenport RD, Reardon DA, Roth MS. Detection of circulating donor white blood cells in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Blood. 1992;80:551–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lee T-H, Donegan E, Slichter S, Busch MP. Transient increase in circulating donor leukocytes after allogeneic transfusions in immunocompetent recipients compatible with donor cell proliferation. Blood. 1995;85:1207–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Utter GH, Owings JT, Lee T-H, Paglieroni TG, Reed WF, Gosselin RC, Holland PV, Busch MP. Blood transfusion is associated with donor leukocyte microchimerism in trauma patients. J Trauma. 2004;57:702–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Utter GH, Nathens AB, Lee TH, Reed WF, Owings JT, Nester TA, Busch MP. Leukoreduction of blood transfusions does not diminish transfusion-associated microchimerism in trauma patients. Transfusion. 2006;46:1863–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gill RM, Lee T-H, Utter GH, Reed WF, Wen L, Chafets D, Busch MP. The TNF (-308A) polymorphism is associated with microchimerism in transfused trauma patients. Blood. 2008;111(7):3880–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tinckam K, Rush D, Hutchinson I, Dembinski I, Pravica V, Jeffery J, Nickerson P. The relative importance of cytokine gene polymorphisms in the development of early and late acute rejection and six-month renal allograft pathology. Transplantation. 2005;79:836–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dunne JR, Lee T-H, Burns C, Cardo LJ, Curry K, Busch MP. Transfusion-associated microchimerism in combat casualties. J Trauma. 2008;64:S92–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Utter GH, Lee T-H, Rivers RM, Montalvo L, Wen L, Chafets DM, Reed WF, Busch MP. Microchimerism decades after transfusion among combat-injured US veterans from the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II conflicts. Transfusion. 2008;48:1609–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kruskall MS, Lee T-H, Assmann SF, Laycock M, Kalish LA, Lederman MM, Busch MP. Survival of transfused donor white blood cells in HIV-infected recipients. Blood. 2001;98(2):272–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sanchez R, Lee T-H, Wen L, Montalvo L, Schechterly C, Colvin C, Alter HJ, Luban NLC, Busch MP. Absence of transfusion-associated microchimerism in pediatric and adult recipients of leukoreduced and gamma-irradiated blood components. Transfusion. 2012;52:936–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bloch EM, Busch MP, Lee T-H, Montalvo L, Matthews Y, Bird A, Bruhn R, Stefan V. Microchimerism in the transfused obstetric population. Vox Sang. 2014;107:428–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bloch EM, Jackman RP, Lee TH, Busch MP. Transfusion-associated microchimerism: the hybrid within. Transfus Med Rev. 2013;27:10–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2012.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sahota A, Gao S, Hayes J, Jindal RM. Microchimerism and rejection: a meta-analysis. Clin Transpl. 2000;14:345–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pujal JM, Grinyó JM, Manito N, Gil-Vernet S, Hueso M, Caldés A, Costa S, Benéitez D, Grañena A, Gallardo D. Influence of hematopoietic microchimerism in organ tolerance after kidney or heart transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2003;35:1775–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sivasai KS, Alevy YG, Duffy BF, Brennan DC, Singer GG, Shenoy S, Lowell JA, Howard T, Mohanakumar T. Peripheral blood microchimerism in human liver and renal transplant recipeints: rejection despite donor-specific chimerism. Transplantation. 1997;64:427–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M, Ramos H, Zeevi A, Rudert WA, Kocova M, Ricordi C, Ildstad S, Murase N. Systemic chimerism in human female recipients of male livers. Lancet. 1992;340:876–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M, Murase N, Ricordi C, Ildstad S, Ramos H, Todo S, Tzakis A, Fung JJ, Nalesnik M, Zeevi A, Rudert WA, Kocova M. Cell migration and chimerism after whole-organ transplantation: the basis of graft acceptance. Hepatology. 1993;17:1127–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anschutz Medical Campus, University of ColoradoAuroraUSA

Personalised recommendations