Behavioral Health Disability and Occupational Medicine: Practices

  • Garson M. CarusoEmail author


Building on the previous chapter’s discussion of reciprocal effects of between behavioral health issues and occupational and environmental medicine, as well as the poorly recognized contribution of administrative and medical iatrogenicity (IAG) and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) to delayed and failed recovery and unnecessary disability (DFR/UD) from work-related illness and injury, this chapter presents conceptual and practical implications of these relationships and proposals for improved management.


Delayed recovery Failed recovery Unnecessary disability Medically unexplained symptoms Psychophysiology Health ethos Iatrogenicity Fear avoidance Catastrophization Health locus of control Adverse childhood experiences Perceived injustice Personality disorders Workplace Occupational medicine 


  1. ACOEM. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (2017). ACOEM practice guidelines. Chronic pain chapter. In K. T. Hegmann (Ed.), Occupational medicine practice guideline (3rd ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.Google Scholar
  2. Advisen. The power of predictive models in workers’ compensation claims handling. November 2015. [].
  3. Anda, R. F., Butchart, A., Felitti, V. J., & Brown, D. W. (2010). Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of adverse childhood experiences. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 93–98. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. APA. American Psychiatric Association Foundation. (2017). Center for Workplace Mental Health. Quantifying the cost of depression . Disorder/Quantifying-the-Cost-of-Depression. Accessed on 11 Nov 2017.
  5. Becker, A. (2012). Health economics of interdisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic pain: Does it support or invalidate the outcomes research of these programs? Current Pain and Headache Reports, 16, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berghout, C. C., Zevalkink, J., & Hakkaart-Van Roijen, L. (2010). The effects of long-term psychoanalytic treatment on healthcare utilization and work impairment and their associated costs. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 16(4), 209–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beutel, M. E., Rasting, M., Stuhr, U., Ruger, B., & Leuzinger-Bohleber, M. (2004). Assessing the impact of psychoanalysis and long-term psychoanalytic therapies on health care utilization and costs. Psychotherapeutic Research, 14(2), 146–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bevan, S. (2015a). Back to work: Exploring the benefits of early interventions which help people with chronic illness remain in work. Fit for work Europe. Accessed on 19 Nov 2017.
  9. Bevan, S. (2015b). Economic impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) on work in Europe. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology, 29, 356–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilsker, D., Wiseman, S., & Gilbert, M. (2006). Managing depression -related occupational disability: A pragmatic approach. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, C. (2008). Working for a healthier tomorrow. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  12. Bostick, G. P. (2017). Effectiveness of psychological interventions delivered by non-psychologists on low back pain and disability: A qualitative systematic review. The Spine Journal, 17(11), 1722–1728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruns, D., & Disorbio, J. M. (2009). Assessment of biopsychosocial risk factors for medical treatment: a collaborative approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16(2), 127–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruns, D., & Disorbio, J. M. (2014). The psychological evaluation of patients with chronic pain: a review of BHI 2 clinical and forensic interpretive considerations. Psychological Injury and Law, 7, 335–61. DOI 10.1007/s12207-014-9206-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchbinder, R., & Underwood, M. (2012). Prognosis in people with back pain. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(11), 1229–1230. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, C. M., Jamison, R. N., & Edwards, R. R. (2013). Psychological screening/phenotype being as predictors for spinal cord stimulation. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 17(1), 307. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll, C., Rick, J., Pilgrim, H., Cameron, J., & Hillage, J. (2009). Workplace involvement improves return to work rates among employees with back pain on long-term sick leave: A systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(8), 607–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caruso, G. M. (2008). A clinical perspective on workplace depression: Current and future directions. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(4), 501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caruso, G. M., Barth, R. J., Christian, J., Goertz, M., Letz, G., Weiss, M. S., & Warren, P. A. (Co-Author), Kahn, J. P., Talmage, J. B. (Panel Consultants), & Harris, J. S. (Committee Consultant). (2011). Chapter 5: Cornerstones of disability prevention and management. In K. T. Hegmann (Ed.), Occupational medicine practice guidelines (3rd ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.Google Scholar
  20. CDWC. Colorado Division of Workers’ Compensation. (2012). Rule 17, exhibit 9: Chronic pain disorder medical treatment guidelines. Section E.2. Personality/psychological/psychosocial evaluation for pain management, pp. 14–25. Accessed on 25 Nov 2017.
  21. Cheatle, M. D. (2016). Biopsychosocial approach to assessing and managing patients with chronic pain. Medical Clinics of North America, 100(1), 43–53. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clark, L. V., Pesola, F., Thomas, J. M., Vergara-Williamson, M., Beynon, M., et al. (2017). Guided graded exercise self-help plus specialist medical care versus specialist medical care alone for chronic fatigue syndrome (GETSET): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 390(10092), 363–373. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Colledge, A. L., & Johnson, H. I. (2000). S.P.I.C.E.–a model for reducing the incidence and costs of occupationally entitled claims. Occupational Medicine, 15(4), 695–722, iii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Conboy, L. A., Macklin, E., Kelley, J., Kokkotou, E., Lembo, A., & Kaptchuk, T. (2010). Which patients improve: characteristics increasing sensitivity to a supportive patient-practitioner relationship. Social Science & Medicine, 70(3), 479–484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Creed, F., Kroenke, K., Henningsen, P., Gudi, A., & White, P. (2011). Chapter 3: Evidence-based treatment. In F. Creed, P. Henningsen, & P. Fink (Eds.), Medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and bodily distress: Developing better clinical services (pp. 69–96). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cullen, K. L., Irvin, E., Collie, A., Clay, F., Gensby, U., Jennings, P. A., et al. (2017). Effectiveness of workplace interventions in return-to-work for musculoskeletal, pain-related and mental health conditions: An update of the evidence and messages for practitioners. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation.
  27. Dasinger, L. K., Krause, N., Thompson, P. J., Brand, R. J., & Rudolph, L. (2001). Doctor proactive communication, return-to-work recommendation, and duration of disability after a workers’ compensation low back injury. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 43(6), 515–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de Maat, S., Philipszoon, F., Schoevers, R., Dekker, J., & De Jonghe, F. (2007). Costs and benefits of long-term psychoanalytic therapy: Changes in health care use and work impairment. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 15(6), 289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Donker, T., Blankers, M., Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., Petrie, K., & Christensen, H. (2015). Economic evaluations of Internet interventions for mental health: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 45(16), 3357–3376. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Drewlo, M. (2014). Factors in optimal collaboration between psychologists and primary healthcare physicians (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Antioch University, Seattle, Washington. Accessed on 30 Nov 2017.
  31. Durand, M.-J., & Hong, Q. N. (2013). Chapter 15: Tools for assessing work disability. In P. Loisel, J. R. Anema, M. Feuerstein, E. MacEachen, G. Pranksy, & K. Costa-Black (Eds.), Handbook of work disability prevention and management (pp. 229–251). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fassier, J. B. (2013). Chapter 27: Identifying local obstacles and facilitators of implementation. In P. Loisel, J. R. Anema, M. Feuerstein, E. MacEachen, G. Pranksy, & K. Costa-Black (Eds.), Handbook of work disability prevention and management (pp. 441–460). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Federici, S., Bracalenti, M., Meloni, F., & Luciano, J. V. (2017). World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0: An international systematic review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(23), 2347–2380. Scholar
  34. Feinberg, S. D. (Chair) (2011). Chronic pain guideline. In K. T. Hegmann (Ed.), Occupational medicine practice guidelines (3rd ed.). Elk Grove, IL: American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM).Google Scholar
  35. Fink, P., Burton, C., De Bie, J., Sollner, W., & Fritzsche, B. (2011). Chapter 4: Current state of management and organization of care. In F. Creed, P. Henningsen, & P. Fink (Eds.), Medically unexplained symptoms, somatization, and bodily distress: Developing better clinical services (pp. 97–123). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Franklin, G. M., Turner, J. A., Wickizer, T. M., Fulton-Kehoe, D., & Mootz, R. D. (2013). Disability prevention. In Gebhart, G. F., & Schmidt, R. F., Eds. Encyclopedia of Pain (Second Edition). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2013:1006–11.Google Scholar
  37. Friedberg, M. W., Chen, P. G., Van Busum, K. R., Aunon, F. M., Pham, C., Caloyeras, J. P., et al. (2013). Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems, and health policy. RAND Corporation Research Report RR-439-AMA. Accessed on 13 May 2017.
  38. Gabel, C. P., Melloh, M., Burkett, B., Osborne, J., & Yelland, M. (2012). The Örebro musculoskeletal screening questionnaire: validation of a modified primary care musculoskeletal screening tool in an acute work injured population. Manual Therapeutics, 17(6), 554–565. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gardner, B. T., Pransky, G., Shaw, W. S., Hong, Q. N., & Loisel, P. (2010). Researcher perspectives on competencies of return-to-work coordinators. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(1), 72–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gatchel, R. J., McGeary, D. D., McGeary, C. A., & Lippe, B. (2014). Interdisciplinary chronic pain management: past, present, and future. American Psychologist, 69(2), 119–130. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. George, S. Z. (2017). Beliefs, behavior, and back pain: Insights into psychologically informed management. North Carolina Medical Journal, 78(5), 333–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldberg, R. (2017). Interview. Workers Compensation, 3(3), 12–13.Google Scholar
  43. Grove, B. (2006). Common mental health problems in the workplace: How can occupational physicians help? Occupational Medicine (London), 56(5), 391–393. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hadler, N. M. (2005). Occupational musculoskeletal disorders (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  45. Hamer, H., Gandhi, R., Wong, S., & Mahomed, N. N. (2013). Predicting return to work following treatment of chronic pain disorder. Occupational Medicine, 63, 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanson, M. A., Burton, K., Kendall, N. A. S., Lancaster, R. J., & Pilkington, A. (2006). The costs and benefits of active case management and rehabilitation for musculoskeletal disorders (Research report 493). London: Health and Safety Executive.Google Scholar
  47. Harder, H. G., Wagner, S. L., & Rash, J. (2014a). Chapter 9: Workplace reactions and interactions with mental health. In Mental illness in the workplace: psychological disability management (pp. 235–252). Surrey, UK: Gower.Google Scholar
  48. Harder, H. G., Wagner, S. L., & Rash, J. (2014b). Mental illness in the workplace: Psychological disability management. Surrey, UK: Gower.Google Scholar
  49. Hayden, J. A., Dunn, K. M., van der Windt, D. A., & Shaw, W. S. (2010). What is the prognosis of back pain? Best Practice and Research Clinincal Rheumatology, 24(2), 167–79. Scholar
  50. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Hill, J. C., & Fritz, J. M. (2011). Psychosocial influences on low back pain, disability, and response to treatment. Physical Therapy, 91, 712–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hill, J. C., Whitehurst, D. G. T., Lewis, M., Bryan, S., Dunn, K. M., Foster, N. E., et al. (2011). Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (StarTBack): A randomised control trial. Lancet, 378, 1560–1571. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. HRC. Harm Reduction Coalition. (2017). Principles of harm reduction. Accessed on 29 Nov 2017.
  54. IOM. Institute of Medicine. (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  55. Jurisic, M., Bean, M., Harbaugh, J., Cloeren, M., Hardy, S., Liu, H., Nelson, C., & Christian, J. (2017). The personal physician’s role in helping patients with medical conditions stay at work or return to work. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(6), e125–e131. Scholar
  56. Kahn, J. P. (2003). Chapter 1: Workplace mental health quality. In J. Khan & A. Langlieb (Eds.), Mental health and productivity in the workplace (pp. 3–27). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (Wiley).Google Scholar
  57. Kahn, J. P. (2008). Diagnosis and referral of workplace depression. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(4), 396–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kahn, J. P., & Langlieb, A., Eds. (2003). Mental health and productivity in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons).Google Scholar
  59. Kamper, S. J., Apeldoorn, A. T., Chiarotto, A., Smeets, R. J. E. M., Ostelo, R. W. J. G., Guzman, J., et al. (2015). Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 350, h444. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Karran, E. L., Traeger, A. C., McAuley, J. H., Hillier, S. L., Yau, Y. H., & Moseley, G. L. (2017) The value of prognostic screening for patients with low back pain in secondary care. Journal of Pain, pii: S1526-5900(17)30022-6.
  61. Katon, W. J., & Seelig, M. (2008). Population-based care of depression: team care approaches to improving outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(4), 459–467. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kendall, N., Burton, A., Main, C., Watson, P., & on behalf of the Flags Think-Tank. (2009). Tackling musculoskeletal problems: A guide for the clinic and workplace: Identifying obstacles using the psychosocial flags framework. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  63. Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Bedirhan Ustun, T. (2007). Age of onset of mental disorders: A review of recent literature. Current Opinions in Psychiatry, 20(4), 359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. King, J., & Moulton, B. (2013). Group health’s participation in a shared decision-making demonstration yielded lessons, such as role of culture change. Health Affairs (Millwood), 32(2), 294–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kosny, A., Franche, R. L., Pole, J., Krause, N., Côté, P., & Mustard, C. (2006). Early healthcare provider communication with patients and their workplace following a lost-time claim for an occupational musculoskeletal injury. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 16(1), 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. L & I. Washington State Department of Labor & Industries. (2016). Reducing disability: Psychosocial determinants influencing recovery (PDIR). Accessed on 25 Nov 2017.
  67. Lamb, S. E., Hansen, Z., Lall, R., Castelnuovo, E., Withers, E. J., Nichols, V., et al. (2010). Group cognitive behavioural treatment for low-back pain in primary care: A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet, 375(9718), 916–923. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Langlieb, A. M., Druss, B. G., & Rosenheck, R. (2003). Chapter 3: Cost-effectiveness, cost containment, and worker productivity. In J. P. Kahn & A. M. Langlieb (Eds.), Mental health and productivity in the workplace: A handbook for organizations and clinicians (pp. 48–59). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  69. Langlieb, A. M., Stoline, A. M., & Sharfstein, S. S. (2003). Chapter 2: Mental health care providers and delivery systems. In J. P. Kahn & A. M. Langlieb (Eds.), Mental health and productivity in the workplace: A handbook for organizations and clinicians (pp. 28–47). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  70. Linton, S. J., Boersma, K., Traczyk, M., Shaw, W., & Nicholas, M. (2016). Early workplace communication and problem solving to prevent back disability: results of a randomized controlled trial among high-risk workers and their supervisors. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 26(2), 150–159. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Loisel, P. (2014). The work disability prevention paradigm: Disability prevention and strategies. Presentation at SEAK National Workers’ Compensation and Occupational Medicine Conference, July 22, 2014.Google Scholar
  72. Loisel, P., Anema, J. R., Feuerstein, M., MacEachen, E., Pranksy, G., & Costa-Black, K. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of work disability prevention and management (pp. 59–67). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Louw, A., Zimney, K., Johnson, E. A., Kraemer, C., Fesler, J., & Burcham, T. (2017). De-educate to re-educate: aging and low back pain. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(6), 1261–1269. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Macdonald, E. B., & Asanati, K. (2016). Absence from work. Contemporary Social Science, 11(1), 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Midtsundstad, T. I., & Nielsen, R. A. (2016). Do workplace interventions reduce disability rates? Occupational Medicine, 66, 691–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Min, J.-A., Lee, C.-U., & Lee, C. (2013). Mental health promotion and illness prevention: A challenge for psychiatrists. Psychiatry Investigation, 10, 307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Modini, M., Sadhbh, J., Mykletun, A., Christensen, H., Bryant, R. A., Mitchell, P. B., et al. (2016). The mental health benefits of employment: Results of a systematic meta-review. Australasian Psychiatry, 24(4), 331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morgan, R. F. (Ed.). (2005). The iatrogenics handbook: A critical look at research and practice in the helping professions. Chico, CA: Morgan Foundation Publishers.Google Scholar
  79. Mostofian, F., Ruban, C., Simunovic, N., & Bhandari, M. (2015). Changing physician behavior: what works? American Journal of Managed Care, 21(1), 75–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murray, A. M., Toussaint, A., Althaus, A., & Löwe, B. (2016). The challenge of diagnosing non-specific, functional, and somatoform disorders: A systematic review of barriers to diagnosis in primary care. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 80, 1–10. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. NAMI. National Alliance on Mental Health Illness of Massachusetts. (2017). Bad for business: the business case for overcoming mental illness stigma in the workplace. . Accessed on 12 Nov 2017.
  82. Newcomb, R. D., Steffen, M. W., Breeher, L. E., Sturchio, G. M., Murad, M. H., Wang, Z., & et al. (2016). Screening for major depressive disorder in the occupational health setting. Occupational Medicine, 66(5), 390–393. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Norton, G., McDonough, C. M., Cabral, H., Shwartz, M., & Burgess, J. F. (2015). Cost-utility of cognitive behavioral therapy for low back pain from the commercial payer perspective. Spine, 40(10), 725–733. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Pandve, H. T. (2014). Quaternary prevention: Need of the hour. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 3(4), 309–310.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Park, J., Esmail, S., Rayani, F., Norris, C. M., & Gross, D. P. (2017). Motivational interviewing for workers with disabling musculoskeletal disorders: Results of a cluster randomized control trial. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation.
  86. Pomaki, G., Franche, R.-L., Murray, E., Khushrushahi, N., & Lampinen, T. M. (2012). Workplace-based work disability prevention interventions for workers with common health conditions: A review of the literature. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 22(2), 182–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pransky, G., Shaw, W., Franche, R. L., & Clarke, A. (2004). Disability prevention and communication among workers, physicians, employers, and insurers–current models and opportunities for improvement. Disability and Rehabilitation, 26(11), 625–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. PWC. Price Waterhouse Cooper. (2014). Creating a mentally healthy workplace: Return on investment analysis. Accessed on 29 Oct 2017.
  89. Reavley, N. J., Ross, A., Killackey, E. J., & Jorm, A. F. (2012). Development of guidelines to assist organizations to support employees returning to work after an episode of anxiety, depression, or a related disorder: A Delphi consensus study with Australian professionals and consumers. BMC Psychiatry, 12, 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Richmond, H., Hall, A. M., Copsey, B., Hansen, Z., Williamson, E., Hoxey-Thomas, N., et al. (2015). The effectiveness of cognitive behavioural treatment for non-specific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 10(8), e0134192. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Rinaldo, U., & Selander, J. (2016). Return to work after vocational rehabilitation for sick-listed workers with long-term back, neck and shoulder problems: A follow-up study of factors involved. Work, 55(1), 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rogerson, M. D., Gatchel, R. J., & Bierner, S. M. (2010). A cost utility analysis of interdisciplinary early intervention versus treatment as usual for high-risk acute low back pain patients. Pain Practice, 10(5), 382–395. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rohricht, F., & Elanjithara, T. (2014). Management of medically unexplained symptoms: Outcomes of a specialist liaison clinic. Psychiatric Bulletin, 38, 102–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rohricht, F., Papadopoulos, N., & Priebe, S. (2013). An exploratory randomized controlled trial of body psychotherapy for patients with chronic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schultz, I. Z., & Gatchel, R. J. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of complex occupational disability claims: Early risk identification, intervention, and prevention. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.Google Scholar
  96. Sears, J. M., Blanar, L., Bowman, S. M., Adams, D., & Silverstein, B. A. (2013). Predicting work-related disability and medical cost outcomes: estimating injury severity scores from workers’ compensation data. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 23(1), 19–31. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Shaw, W. S., Pransky, G., Roter, D. L., Winters, T., Tveito, T. H., & Larson, S. M. (2011a). The effects of patient-provider communication on 3-month recovery from acute low back pain. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(1), 16–25. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Shaw, W. S., Reme, S. E., Linton, S. J., Huang, Y. H., & Pransky, G. (2011b). Development of the return-to-work self-efficacy (RTWSE-19) questionnaire– psychometric properties and predictive validity. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health, 37(2), 109–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shay, L. A., & Lafata, J. E. (2015). Where is the evidence? A systematic review of shared decision making and patient outcomes. Medical Decision Making, 35(1), 114–131. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Schultz, I. Z., Law, A. K., & Cruikshank, L. C. (2016). Prediction of occupational disability from psychological and neuropsychological evidence in forensic context. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 49(Pt B), 183–196. Scholar
  101. Simpkin, A. L., & Schwartzstein, R. M. (2016). Tolerating uncertainty – the next medical revolution? New England Journal of Medicine, 375(18), 1713–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Solano, L., Pirrotta, E., Ingravalle, V., & Fayella, P. (2009). The family physician and the psychologist in the office together: A response to fragmentation. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 6, 91–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Stanos, S. (2012). Focused review of interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programs for chronic pain management. Current Pain Headache Reports, 16, 147–152. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Steenstra, I. A., Munhall, C., Irvin, E., Oranye, N., Passmore, S., Van Eerd, D., Mahood, Q., & Hogg-Johnson, S. (2017). Systematic review of prognostic factors for return to work in workers with sub acute and chronic low back pain. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 27(3), 369–381. Scholar
  105. Sullivan, M. J. L. (2013). What is the clinical value of assessing pain-related psychosocial risk factors? Pain Management, 3(6), 413–6. Scholar
  106. Sullivan, M. J. L. (2016). Introduction to the special issue on justice-related appraisals and recovery outcomes. Psychological Injury and Law, 9, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sullivan, M. J. L., Adams, H., & Ellis, T. (2013). A psychosocial risk-targeted intervention to reduce work disability: Development, evolution, and implementation challenges. Psychological Injury and Law, 6(3), 250–257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Talmage, J. B. (2011). Chapter 6: The occupational medicine perspective on behavioral health concerns. In P. A. Warren (Ed.), Behavioral health disability: Innovations in prevention and management (pp. 133–144). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  109. Talmage, J. B., Melhorn, J. M., & Hyman, M. H. (2011). Chapter 2: How to think about work ability and work restrictions: Risk, capacity, and tolerance. In J. B. Talmage, J. M. Melhorn, & M. H. Hyman (Eds.), AMA guides to the evaluation of work ability and return to work (2nd ed., pp. 9–21). Chicago: AMA Press.Google Scholar
  110. Tompa, E., de Oliveira, C., Dolinschi, R., & Irvin, E. (2008). A systematic review of disability management interventions with economic evaluations. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 18, 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Turner, J. A., Franklin, G., Fulton-Kehoe, D., Sheppard, L., Stover, B., Wu, R., et al. (2008). ISSLS prize winner: early predictors of chronic work disability: a prospective, population-based study of workers with back injuries. Spine, 33(25), 2809–2818. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. van Vilsteren, M., van Oostrom, S. H., de Vet, H. C. W., Franche, R. L., Boot, C. R. L., & Anema, J. R. (2015). Workplace interventions to prevent work disability in workers on sick leave (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006955.
  113. Waddell, G., & Aylward, M. (2010). Models of sickness and disability applied to common health problems. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press.Google Scholar
  114. Waddell, G., & Burton, A. K. (2004). Concepts of rehabilitation for the management of common health problems. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  115. Waddell, G., & Burton, A. K. (2006). Is work good for your health and well-being? London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  116. Waddell, G. (2006). Preventing incapacity in people with musculoskeletal disorders. British Medical Bulletin, 77–78, 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Watson, L. C., Amick, H. R., Gaynes, B. N., Brownley, K. A., Thaker, S., Viswanathan, M., et al. (2013). Practice-based interventions addressing concomitant depression and chronic medical conditions in the primary care setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Primary Care and Community Health, 4(4), 294–306. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. WHO. World Health Organization. (2004). Prevention of mental disorders: Effective interventions and policy options. Summary report. Accessed on 26 Nov 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Occupational and Environmental MedicineMechanicsburgUSA

Personalised recommendations