Advertisement

Resilience to Interpersonal Stress: Why Mattering Matters When Building the Foundation of Mentally Healthy Schools

  • Gordon L. FlettEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

The current chapter is about the role of interpersonal factors and processes in the mental health problems of children and adolescents. It is dedicated to those caring adults who make a critical difference in young people’s lives. It is now generally accepted that one of the most potent factors in the development of resilience among children and adolescents is having close and ongoing contact and interaction with a caring adult. Of course, for many young people, these caring adults are the teachers at school who have taken a special interest in them. The central premise of this chapter is that interpersonal vulnerability factors play a key and debilitating role in potentiating various forms of psychological distress among young people, but in keeping with the role played by caring adults, interpersonal factors and processes such as developing feelings of mattering to others can also protect children and adolescents.

Keywords

Resilience among children and adolescents School-based resiliency programs School-based interpersonal resiliency programs 

References

  1. Abel, E. M., & Greco, M. (2008). A preliminary evaluation of an abstinence-oriented empowerment program for public school youth. Research on Social Work Practice, 18, 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiva, T., Cortina, K. S., Eccles, J. S., & Smith, C. (2013). Youth belonging and cognitive engagement in organized activities: A large-scale field study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34, 208–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2013.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association. (2014). Stress in America: Are teens adopting adults’ stress habits? Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  4. Ames, S. C., Offord, K. P., Nirelli, L. M., Patten, C. A., Friedrich, W. N., Decker, P. A., & Hurt, R. D. (2005). Initial development of a new measure of minor stress for adolescents: The adolescent minor stress inventory. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 207–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-4303-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, T., Romano, E., & Flynn, R. J. (2013). Multilevel correlates of behavioural resilience among children in child welfare. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37, 1007–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertera, E. M. (2007). The role of positive and negative social exchanges between adolescents, their peers and family as predictors of suicide ideation. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 24, 523–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Schilling, E. A. (1989). Effects of daily stress on mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 808–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Turgeon, L., & Poulin, F. (2002). Assessing aggressive and depressed children’s social relations with classmates and friends: A matter of perspective. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 30, 609–624.Google Scholar
  9. Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., Girard, A., Bukowski, W. M., Dionne, G., Tremblay, R. E., & Pérusse, D. (2009). Gene-environment interplay between peer rejection and depressive behaviour in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry50, 1009–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cacioppo, J. T., Reis, H. T., & Zautra, A. J. (2011). Social resilience: The value of social fitness with an application to the military. American Psychologist, 66, 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, P. T., Doan, S. N., & Tompson, M. C. (2014). Stress generation in a developmental context: The role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, E. C. (2002). Predicting suicide ideation in an adolescent population: Examining the role of social problem solving as a moderator and a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1279–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiang, J. J., Bower, J. E., Almeida, D. M., Irwin, M. R., Seeman, T. E., & Fuligni, A. J. (2015). Socioeconomic status, daily affective and social experiences, and inflammation during adolescence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 77, 256–266. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000160CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiodo, D., Crooks, C. V., Wolfe, D. A., McIsaac, C., Hughes, R., & Jaffe, P. G. (2012). Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization. Prevention Science., 13, 350–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cookston, J. T., Olide, A. F., Adams, M. A., Fabricius, W. V., & Parke, R. D. (2012). Guided cognitive reframing of adolescent-father conflict: Who Mexican American and European America adolescents seek and why. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 135, 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coren, S. A., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Pursuing perfection: Distress and interpersonal functioning among adolescent boys in single-sex and co-educational independent schools. Psychology in the Schools, 51, 931–946. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21795CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 39, 28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crooks, C. V., Scott, K. L., Wolfe, D. A., Chiodo, D., & Killip, S. (2007). Understanding the link between childhood maltreatment and violent delinquency: What do schools have to add. Child Maltreatment, 12, 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559507301843CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DeForge, B. R., & Barclay, D. M. (1997). The internal reliability of a general mattering scale in homeless men. Psychological Reports, 80, 429–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Relationship of daily hassles, uplifts, and major life events to health status. Health Psychology, 1, 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dixon, A. L., Scheidegger, C., & McWhirter, J. J. (2009). The adolescent mattering experience: Gender variations in perceived mattering, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Counseling and Development, 87, 302–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  23. Edwards, K. M., & Neal, A. M. (2017). School and community characteristics related to dating violence victimization among high school youth. Psychology of Violence, 7, 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elliott, G. C., Colangelo, M. F., & Gelles, R. J. (2005). Mattering and suicide ideation: Establishing and elaborating a relationship. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68, 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elliott, G. C., Cunningham, S. M., Colangelo, M., & Gelles, R. J. (2011). Perceived mattering to the family and physical violence within the family by adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 32, 1007–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elliott, G. C., Kao, S., & Grant, A. (2004). Mattering: Empirical validation of a social-psychological concept. Self and Identity., 3, 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Flett, G. L. (2017, November 9th). Why mattering matters: The importance of feeling significant at home, at school, in the community, and at work. Second annual York University Dr. Eric Jackman Lecture, Markham, Ontario.Google Scholar
  28. Flett, G. L. (2018). The psychology of mattering: Understanding the human need to be significant. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Flett, G. L., Flett, A. L., & Wekerle, C. (2015). A conceptual analysis of interpersonal resilience as a key resilience domain: Understanding the ability to overcome child sexual abuse and other adverse interpersonal contexts. International Journal of Child and Youth Resilience, 3, 4–33.Google Scholar
  30. Flett, G. L., Goldstein, A. L., Pechenkov, I. G., Nepon, T., & Wekerle, C. (2016). Antecedents, correlates, and consequences of feeling like you don’t matter: Associations with maltreatment, loneliness, social anxiety, and the five-factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 52–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flett, G. L., Schmidt, D. H., Besser, A., & Hewitt, P. L. (2016). Interpersonal personality vulnerabilities, stress, and depression in adolescents: Interpersonal hassles as a mediator of sociotropy and socially prescribed perfectionism. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 4, 103–121.Google Scholar
  32. Flett, G. L., Sue, C., Ma, L., & Guo, L. (2014). Academic buoyancy and mattering as resilience factors in Chinese adolescents: An analysis of shame, social anxiety, and psychological distress. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 2, 37–45.Google Scholar
  33. Flett, G. L., Sue, C., Ma, L., & Guo, L. (2016). Mattering as a unique resilience factor in Chinese children: A comparative analysis of predictors of depression. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilience, 4, 91–102.Google Scholar
  34. Fuligni, A. J., Telzer, E. H., Bower, J., Irwin, M. R., Kiang, L., & Cole, S. W. (2009). Daily family assistance and inflammation among adolescents from Latin American and European backgrounds. Brain, Behaivor, and Immunity, 23, 803–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148–162. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galloway, M. K., & Conner, J. (2015). Perpetuating privilege: Students’ perspectives on the culture of a high-performing and high-pressure high school. The Educational Forum, 79, 99–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2014.1002592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaudreault, K. L., Richards, A. R., & Woods, A. M. (2017). Initial validation of the physical education marginalization and isolation survey (PE-MAIS). Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 21, 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2016.1257994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glasser, W., & Gough, P. B. (1987). The key to improving schools: An interview with William Glasser. The Phi Delta Kappan, 68, 656–662.Google Scholar
  39. Gruber, K. A., Kilcullen, R. N., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (2009). Effects of psychosocial resources on elite soldiers’ completion of a demanding military selection program. Military Psychology, 21, 427–444. https://doi.org/10.1080/08995600903206354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamilton, J. L., Stange, J. P., Kleiman, E. M., Hamlat, E. J., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2014). Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 824–833. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-0015-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hammen, C. (1991). The generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harkness, H. L., Lumley, M. N., & Truss, A. E. (2008). Stress generation in adolescent depression: The moderating role of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hartos, J. L., & Power, T. G. (1997). Mothers’ awareness of their early adolescents’ stressors. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 371–389. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431697017004002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heath, K., Garcia, G., Hanson, B., Rivera, M., Hedwig, T., Moras, R., … Craig, S. (2015). Growing up in Anchorage: Anchorage youth and young adult behavioural health and wellness assessment. Anchorage, Alaska: University of Alaska Anchorage: Center for Human Development.Google Scholar
  45. Heath, N. L., Toste, J. R., & Beettam, E. L. (2006). “I am not well-equipped”: High school teachers’ perception of self-injury. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 21, 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hewitt, P. L., Caelian, C. F., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., Collins, L., & Flynn, C. A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations with depression, anxiety, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1049–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (2002). Perfectionism and stress in psychopathology. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 255–284). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Mikail, S. F. (2017). Perfectionism: A relational approach to assessment, treatment, and conceptualization. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  50. Hodder, R. K., Freund, M., Wolfenden, L., Bowman, J., Campbell, E., Dray, J., … Wiggers, J. (2017). Systematic review of universal school-based “resilience” interventions targeting adolescent tobacco, alcohol or illicit substance use: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 100, 248–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jandorf, L., Deblinger, E., Neale, J. M., & Stone, A. A. (1986). Daily versus major life events as predictors of symptom frequency: A replication study. The Journal of General Psychology, 113, 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Joeng, J. R., & Turner, S. L. (2015). Mediators between self-criticism and depression: Fear of compassion, self-compassion, and importance to others. Journal of Counseling Psychology., 62, 453–463. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jung, A.-K., & Heppner, M. J. (2017). Development and validation of a work mattering scale (WMS). Journal of Career Assessment, 25, 467–483. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072715599412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kanner, A. D., Feldman, S. S., Weinberger, D. A., & Ford, M. E. (1987). Uplifts, hassles, and adaptational outcomes in early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 371–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Karcher, M. J., Nakkula, M. J., & Harris, J. (2005). Developmental mentoring match characteristics: Correspondence between mentors; and mentees’ assessments of relationship quality. Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 93–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-005-1847-xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kohn, P. M., & Milrose, J. A. (1993). The inventory of high-school students’ recent life experiences: A decontaminated measure of adolescents’ hassles. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laceulle, O. M., Veenstra, R., Vollebergh, W. A. M., & Ormel, J. (in press). Sequences of maladaptation: Preadolescent self-regulation, adolescent negative social interactions, and young adult psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579417001808
  59. Lai, J. C. L. (2009). Dispositional optimism buffers the impact of daily hassles on mental health in Chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lakey, B., Tardiff, T. A., & Drew, J. B. (1994). Negative social interactions: Assessment and relations to social support, cognition, and psychological distress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 42–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. LeBouef, J. L. (2011). Mentoring first-time and low-level delinquent adolescents: The impact of an on-campus mentoring program on sense of self and rule non-compliance. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Colorado State, Fort Collins, Colorado.Google Scholar
  62. Lee, A., Hankin, B. L., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2010). Perceived social competence, negative social interactions and negative cognitive style predict depressive symptoms during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 603–615. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2010.501284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lemon, J. C., & Watson, J. C. (2011). Early identification of potential high school dropouts: An investigation of the relationship among at-risk status, wellness, perceived stress, and mattering. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, 16, 17–23.Google Scholar
  64. Lewis, D-M. (2017). A matter for concern: Young offenders and the importance of mattering. Deviant Behavior, 38, 1318–1331. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1197659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Luthar, S. S., & Barkin, S. H. (2012). Are affluent youth truly “at risk”? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Luthar, S. S., Barkin, S. H., & Crossman, E. J. (2013). “I can therefore I must”: Fragility in the upper-middle classes. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1529–1549. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000758CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Luthar, S. S., & Becker, B. E. (2002). Privileged but pressured: A study of affluent youth. Child Development, 73, 1503–1610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future research. Child Development, 71, 543–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyman, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Further evidence on the costs of privilege: Perfectionism in high-achieving youth at socioeconomic extremes. Psychology in the Schools, 51, 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mann, M. J. (2013). Helping middle school girls at risk for school failure recover their confidence and achieve school success: An experimental study. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 36(9), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404476.2013.11462102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marcus, F. M., & Rosenberg, M. (1987). Mattering: It’s measurement and significance in everyday life. Paper presented at the 57th annual Eastern Sociological Society Meeting, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  73. Marks, A. D. G., Sobanski, D. J., & Hine, D. W. (2010). Do dispositional rumination and/or mindfulness moderate the relationship between life hassles and psychological dysfunction in adolescents? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 831–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marshall, S. K. (2001). Do I matter? Construct validation of adolescents’ perceived mattering to parents and friends. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 473–490. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2001.0384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Marshall, S. K. (2004). Relative contributions of perceived mattering to parents and friends in predicting adolescents’ psychological well-being. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 591–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martinez, L. S., Bowers, E., Reich, A. J., Ndulue, U. J., Le, A. A., & Perea, F. C. (2016). Engaging youth of color in applied science education and public health promotion. International Journal of Science Education, 38, 688–699. https://dx.doi.org/09500693.2015.1134850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Miller, G. E., & Chen, E. (2010). Harsh family climate in early life presages the emergence of a proinflammatory phenotype in adolescence. Psychological Science, 21, 848–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Monroe, S. M. (1983). Major and minor life events as predictors of psychological distress: Further issues and findings. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 189–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Munroe County Department of Public Health. (2017). 2017 Monroe County youth risk behavior survey report. Rochester, NY: Monroe County Department of Public Health.Google Scholar
  81. Murphey, D. A., Lamonda, K. H., Carney, J. K., & Duncan, P. (2004). Relationships of a brief measure of youth assets to health-promoting risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34, 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Olcon, K., Kim, Y., & Gulbas, L. E. (2017). Sense of belonging and youth suicidal behaviors: What do communities and schools have to do with it? Social Work in Public Health, 32, 432–442. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2017.1344602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oyserman, D., Uskul, U. K., Yoder, N., Nesse, R. M., & Williams, D. R. (2007). Unfair treatment and self-regulatory focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pagel, M. D., Erdly, W. W., & Becker, J. (1987). Social networks: We get by with (and in spite of) a little help from our friends. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 793–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Paulhus, D. L., & Martin, C. L. (1988). Functional flexibility: A new conception of interpersonal flexibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Platt, B., Kadosh, K. C., & Lau, J. Y. F. (2013). The role of peer rejection in adolescent depression. Depression and Anxiety, 30, 809–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Possell, P., Rakes, C., Rudasill, K. M., Sawyer, M. G., Spence, S. H., & Sheffield, J. (2016). Associations between teacher-reported school climate and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: A five-year longitudinal study. School Mental Health, 8, 425–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/S12310-016-9191-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Raque-Bogdan, T. L., Ericson, S. K., Jackson, J., Martin, H. M., & Bryan, N. A. (2011). Attachment and mental and physical health: Self-compassion and mattering as mediators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rautkis, M. E., Koeske, G. E., & Tereshko, O. (1995). Negative social interactions, distress, and depression among those caring for a seriously and persistently mentally ill relative. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 279–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rayle, A. D. (2005). Adolescent gender differences in mattering and wellness. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 753–763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.10.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Richards, K. A. R., Gaudreault, K. L., & Woods, A. M. (2017). Understanding physical educators’ perceptions of mattering: Validating of the perceived mattering questionnaire—physical education. European Physical Education Review, 23, 73–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X16637320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 408–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rook, K. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: Impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1097–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosenberg, M. (1985). Self-concept and psychological well-being in adolescence. In R. L. Leahy (Ed.), The development of the self (pp. 205–246). Toronto, Canada: Academic.Google Scholar
  96. Rosenberg, M., & McCullough, B. C. (1981). Mattering: Inferred significance and mental health among adolescents. Research in Community and Mental Health, 2, 163–182.Google Scholar
  97. Rosenfield, D., Jouriles, E. N., Mueller, V., & McDonald, R. (2013). When at-risk teens are violent toward romantic partners: The role of common stressors. Psychology of Violence, 3, 260–272. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rowlison, R. T., & Felner, R. D. (1988). Major life events, hassles, and adaptation in adolescence: Confounding in the conceptualization and measurement of life stress and adjustment revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 432–444. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.55.3.432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Lindberg, N., Herzberg, D., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Toward an interpersonal life-stress model of depression: The developmental context of stress generation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 215–234. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400002066CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rudolph, K. D., Flynn, M., Abaied, J. L., Groot, A., & Thompson, R. (2009). Why is past depression the best predictor of future depression? Stress generation as a mechanism of depression continuity in girls. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ruehlman, L. S., & Wolchik, S. A. (1988). Personal goals and interpersonal support and hindrance as factors in psychological distress and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Salafia, & Lemer, J. L. (2012). Associations between multiple types of stress and disordered eating among girls and boys in middle school. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21, 148–157. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9458-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sandler, I., Ayers, T. S., Tein, J. Y., Wolchik, A., Millsap, R., Khoo, S. T., & Coxe, S. (2010). Six-year follow-up of a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164, 907–914. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.173CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Schenck, C. E., Braver, S. L., Wolchik, S. A., Saenz, D., Cookston, J. T., & Fabricius, W. V. (2009). Relations between mattering to step- and non-residential fathers and adolescent mental health. Fathering, 7, 70–90. https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0701.70CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Scheve, J. A., Perkins, D. F., & Mincemoyer, C. (2006). Collaborative teams for youth engagement. Journal of Community Practice, 14, 219–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Shih, J. H., Eberhart, N., Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 103–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Short, K. H. (2016). Intentional, explicit, systematic: Implementation and scale-up of effective practices for supporting student mental well-being in Ontario schools. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 18(1), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623730.2015.1088681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sigal, A. B., Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J. Y., & Sandler, I. N. (2012). Enhancing youth outcomes following parental divorce: A longitudinal study of the effects of the new beginnings program on educational and occupational goals. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 41, 150–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Spencer, R., Walsh, J., Liang, B., Mousseau, A. M. D., & Lund, T. J. (2018). Having it all? A qualitative examination of affluent adolescent girls’ perceptions of stress and their quests for success. Journal of Adolescent Research, 33, 3–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558416670990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stroud, C. B., Sosoo, E. E., & Wilson, S. (2018). Rumination, excessive reassurance seeking, and stress generation among early adolescent girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 38, 139–163. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431616659559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vance, J. D. (2016). Hillbilly elegy: A memoir of a family and a culture in crisis. New York, NY: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  112. Watson, J. C. (2017/2018). Examining the relationship between self-esteem, mattering, school connectedness, and wellness among middle school students. Professional School Counseling, 21, 108–118. https://doi.org/10.5330/1096-2409-21.1.108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  114. Werner-Seidler, A., Perry, Y., Calear, A. L., Newby, J. M., & Christensen, H. (2017). School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 51, 30–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wexler, L., Poudel-Tandukar, K., Rataj, S., Trout, L., Poudel, K. C., Woods, M., & Chachamovich, E. (2017). Preliminary evaluation of a school-based youth leadership and prevention program in rural Alaska native communities. School Mental Health, 9, 172–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-016-9203-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wolf, T. M., Elston, R. C., & Kissling, G. K. (1989). Relationship of hassles, uplifts, and life events to psychological well-being of freshman medical students. Behavioral Medicine, 15, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wright, M., Creed, P., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2010). The development and initial validation of a brief daily hassles scale suitable for use with adolescents. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 220–226. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. York Region District School Board. (2017, November). School Climate Survey For Students: Key Findings Report. Aurora, Ontario: York Region District School Board.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.York UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations