Advertisement

Evidence of Sorghum Cultivation and Possible Pearl Millet in the Second Millennium BC at Kassala, Eastern Sudan

  • Alemseged Beldados
  • Andrea Manzo
  • Charlene Murphy
  • Chris J. Stevens
  • Dorian Q. Fuller
Chapter

Abstract

Carbonized plant remains and plant impressions in burnt clay pieces, recovered during archaeological excavation and survey of two sites in East Sudan, were subjected to archaeobotanical investigation. Analysed samples have provided evidence for plant use and cultivation of sorghum alongside the use of a range of other taxa. The results from this study illustrate that as late as the early second millennium BC, the inhabitants of Kassala were still exploiting a mixture of morphologically wild and domesticated Sorghum bicolor. The evidence suggests that while the domestication process of sorghum was underway, full domestication may not have been reached at this time. We can hence classify this as part of the pre-domestication cultivation stage for Sorghum bicolor, which can be inferred to have begun at least two thousand years earlier. Wild taxa that may also have been exploited for food include Brachiaria sp., Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itchgrass), and apparently mixed wild and domesticated Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet). This study also provides the first archaeobotanical evidence for Adansonia digitata (baobab) in northeastern Africa. Taken together these data suggest that Kassala was part of an early core area for sorghum domestication and played an important role in the diffusion of Africa crops including pearl millet to Asia.

Keywords

Adansonia digitata Agriculture Archaeobotany Palaeoethnobotany Nubia Pearl millet Sorghum 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Travel and research in London by AB, together with work by CS, CM, DF was supported by the European Research Council project “Comparative Pathways to Agriculture” (ComPAg, ERC grant agreement 323842). Fieldwork directed by AM was supported by University of Naples, “L’Orientale”, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Italian Ministry for University and Research grant “Futuro in Ricerca 2012” RBFR12N6WD “Aree di transizione linguistiche e culturali in Africa” (Cultural and linguistic transitions in Africa).

References

  1. Abbas SAM-A, Jaeger SE (1989) The early ceramic of the Eastern Butana (Sudan). In: Krzyzaniak L, Kobusiewicz M (eds) Late prehistory of the Nile Basin and the Sahara. Poznań Archaeological Museum, Poznań, pp 473–480Google Scholar
  2. Adunga A, Bekele E (2013) Geographical distribution and phenotypic diversity of wild/weedy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in Ethiopia: implications for germplasm conservation and crop–wild gene flow. Plant Genet Resour-C 11(1):68–76Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich PR, Doebley J (1992) Restriction fragment variation in the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of cultivated and wild Sorghum bicolor. Theor Appl Genet 85:293–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews FW (1952) The flowering plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Sterculiacea-Dipsacaceae, vol II. T. Buncle & co. Ltd., ArbroathGoogle Scholar
  5. Bard KA, Fattovich R (2013) The land of punt and recent archaeological and textual evidence from the pharaonic harbour at Mersa/Wadi Gawasis, Egypt. In: Chrisomalis S, Costopoulos A (eds) Human expeditions: inspired by Bruce Trigger. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  6. Beldados A (2015) Paleoethnobotanical study of ancient food crops and the environmental context in North East Africa, 6000 BC-200/300 AD. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 88. BAR International series 2706. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Beldados A, Costantini L (2011) Sorghum exploitation at Kassala and its environs, Northeastern Sudan in the second and first millennium BC. Nyame Akuma 75:33–39Google Scholar
  8. Billot C, Ramu P, Bouchet S et al (2013) Massive sorghum collection genotyped with SSR markers to enhance use of global genetic resources. PLoS ONE 8(4):e59714CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Blench R (2007) The intertwined history of the silk-cotton and baobab. In: Cappers RTJ (ed) Fields of change: progress in African archaeobotany. Barkhuis & Groningen University Library, Groningen, The Netherlands, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  10. Boivin N, Crowther A, Helm R et al (2013) East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean world. J World Prehist 26:213–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boivin N, Fuller DQ (2009) Shell middens, ships and seeds: exploring coastal subsistence, maritime trade and the dispersal of domesticates in and around the ancient Arabian Peninsula. J World Prehist 22(2):113–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brunken J, De Wet JMJ, Harlan JR (1977) The morphology and domestication of pearl millet. Econ Bot 31:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burkill HM (1994) The useful plants of West Tropical Africa, Vol 2, 2nd edn, Families E–I. Royal Botanic Gardens, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Castillo C, Tanaka K, Sato YI et al (2016) Archaeogenetic study of prehistoric rice remains from Thailand and India: evidence of early japonica in South and Southeast Asia. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 8:523–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chemisquy MA, Giussani LM, Scataglini MA et al (2010) Phylogenetic studies favour the unification of Pennisetum, Cenchrus and Odontelytrum (Poaceae): a combined nuclear, plastid and morphological analysis, and nomenclatural combinations in Cenchrus. Ann Bot 106(1):107–130CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Clapham AJ, Rowley-Conwy PA (2007) New discoveries at Qasr Ibrim, Lower Nubia. In: Cappers RTJ (ed) Fields of change: progress in African archaeobotany. Groningen Archaeological Studies 5. Barkhuis, pp 157–164Google Scholar
  17. Clark JD (1984) Prehistoric cultural continuity and the economic change in the Central Sudan in the Early Holocene. In: Clark JD, Brandt SA (eds) From hunters to farmers, the causes and consequences of food production in Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 113–126Google Scholar
  18. Clark JD, Stemler AB (1975) Early domesticated sorghum from Central Sudan. Nature 25:588–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Costantini L, Fattovich R, Pardini E et al (1982) Preliminary report of archaeological investigations at the site of Teglinos (Kassala). Nyame Akuma 21:30–33Google Scholar
  20. Costantini L, Fattovich R, Piperno M, Sadr K (1983) Gash Delta archaeological project: 1982 field season. Nyame Akuma 23:17–19Google Scholar
  21. de Moulins D, Phillips C, Durrani N (2003) The archaeological records of Yemen and the question of Afro-Asian contact. In: Neumann K, Buttler A, Kahlheber S (eds) Food, fuels and fields: progress in African archaeobotany. Heinrich Barth-Institut, Cologne, pp 281–299Google Scholar
  22. de Wet JMJ (1977) Domestication of African cereals. Afr Econ Hist 3:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Wet JMJ, Huckabay JP (1967) The origin of Sorghum bicolor. II. Distribution and domestication. Evolution 21:787–802CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Doggett H, Prasada Rao KE (1995) Sorghum. In: Smartt J, Simmonds JW (eds) Evolution of crop plants, 2nd edn. Longman Group UK limited, London, pp 173–180Google Scholar
  25. Dominy NJ, Ikram S, Moritz GL et al (2015) Mummified baboons clarify ancient Red Sea trade routes [Abstract]. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:122–123Google Scholar
  26. Fattovich R (1989) The later prehistory of the Gash Delta (Eastern Sudan). In: Krzyzaniak L, Kobusiewicz M (eds) Late prehistory of the Nile Basin and the Sahara. Poznan Museum, Poznan, pp 481–498Google Scholar
  27. Fattovich R (1991) At the periphery of the empire: the Gash Delta (Eastern Sudan). In: Davies WV (ed) Egypt and Africa. Nubia from prehistory to Islam. British Museum Press, London, pp 40–48Google Scholar
  28. Fattovich R (1993a) The Gash group of the Eastern Sudan: an outline. In: Krzyzaniak L, Kobusiewicz M, Alexander J (eds) Environmental change and human culture in the Nile Basin and Northern Africa until the second millennium BC. Poznan Archaeological Museum, Poznan, pp 439–448Google Scholar
  29. Fattovich R (1993b) Excavations at Mahal Teglinos (Kassala) 1984–1988. A preliminary report. Kush 16:225–287Google Scholar
  30. Fattovich R (2012) The Southern Red Sea in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC: an archaeological overview. In: Agius DA, Cooper JP, Tradakas A, Zazzaro C (eds) Navigated spaces, connected places. Proceedings of the Red Sea Project V held at the University of Exeter, 16–19 September 2010. BAR International Series 2346. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 39–46Google Scholar
  31. Fattovich R, Marks EA, Ali MA (1984) The archaeology of the Eastern Sahel, Sudan: preliminary results. Afr Archaeol Rev 2:173–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fattovich R, Piperno M (1986) Archaeological researches in the Gash Delta, Kassala Province (1980–81 field seasons). In: Krause M (ed) Nubische Studien. Proceedings of the symposium of the international society of Nubian studies, Heidelberg, 1982. P. von Zabern, Mainz, pp 47–53Google Scholar
  33. Fuller DQ (2003) African crops in prehistoric South Asia: a critical review. In: Neumann K, Butler A, Kahlheber S (eds) Food, fuel and fields. Progress in Africa archaeobotany. Africa Praehistorica 15. Heinrich-Barth-Institut, Cologne, pp 239–271Google Scholar
  34. Fuller DQ (2004a) Early Kushite agriculture: archaeobotanical evidence from Kawa. Sudan & Nubia 8:7–74Google Scholar
  35. Fuller DQ (2004b) The Central Amri to Kirbekan survey. A preliminary report on excavations and survey 2003–04. Sudan & Nubia 8:4–16Google Scholar
  36. Fuller DQ (2007) Contrasting patterns in crop domestication and domestication rates: recent archaeobotanical insights from the Old World. Ann Bot 100(5):903–924CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuller DQ (2014a) Agricultural innovation and state collapse in Meroitic Nubia: the impact of the savannah package. In: Stevens CJ, Nixon S, Murray MA, Fuller DQ (eds) Archaeology of African plant use. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp 165–178Google Scholar
  38. Fuller DQ (2014b) Agricultural innovation and state collapse in Meroitic Nubia. In: Archaeology of African plant use, Vol 61. UCL Institute of Archaeology Publications, pp 165–177Google Scholar
  39. Fuller DQ (2015) The economic basis of the Qustul splinter state: cash crops, subsistence shifts and labour demands in the Post-Meroitic transition. In: Zach MH (ed) The Kushite world. Proceedings of the 11th international conference for Meroitic studies. Beiträge zur Sudanforschung Beiheft 9. Verein der Förderer der Sudanforschung, Vienna, pp 33–60Google Scholar
  40. Fuller DQ, Boivin N (2009) Crops, cattle and commensals across the Indian Ocean: current and potential archaeobiological evidence. In: Lefevre G (ed) Plantes et Societes. Etudes Ocean Indien 42–43. Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, Paris, pp 13–46Google Scholar
  41. Fuller DQ, Edwards DN (2001) Medieval plant economy in Middle Nubia: preliminary archaeobotanical evidence from Nauri. Sudan & Nubia 5:97–103Google Scholar
  42. Fuller DQ, Stevens C (2018) Sorghum domestication and diversification: a current archaeobotanical perspective. Plants and People in the African Past 503–528Google Scholar
  43. Fuller DQ, Harvey E, Qin L (2007) Presumed domestication? Evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium BC of the Lower Yangtze region. Antiquity 81:316–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fuller DQ, Qin L, Zheng Y et al (2009) The domestication process and domestication rate in rice: spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze. Science 323:1607–1610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fuller DQ, Allaby RG, Stevens C (2010) Domestication as innovation: the entanglement of techniques, technology and chance in the domestication of cereal crops. World Archaeol 42(1):13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fuller DQ, Boivin N, Hoogervorst T et al (2011) Across the Indian Ocean: the prehistoric plants and animals. Antiquity 85:544–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fuller DQ, Denham T, Arroyo-Kalin M et al (2014) Convergent evolution and parallelism in plant domestication revealed by an expanding archaeological record. Proc Nat Acad Sci 111(17):6147–6152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fuller DQ, Weisskopf AR, Castillo CC (2016) Pathways of rice diversification across Asia. Archaeol Int 19:84–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Garcea EAA (2006) Semi-permanent foragers in semi-arid environments of North Africa. World Archaeol 38:197–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haaland R (1999) The puzzle of the late emergence of domesticated sorghum in the Nile Valley. In: Gosden C, Hather J (eds) The prehistory of food. pp 397–418Google Scholar
  51. Harlan JR (1971) Agricultural origins: centers and noncenters. Science 174:468–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Harland JR, Stemler ABL (1976) The races of sorghum in Africa. In: Harland JR, de Wet JMJ, Stemler ABL (eds) Origins of African plant domestication. Mouton, The Hague, pp 465–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Harlan JR, de Wet JMJ, Price EG (1973) Comparative evolution of cereals. Evolution; Int J Org Evol 27:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harris D, Fuller DQ (2014) Agriculture: definition and overview. In: Smith C (ed) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Htun TM, Inoue C, Chhourn O et al (2014) Effect of quantitative trait loci for seed shattering on abscission layer formation in Asian wild rice Oryza rufipogon. Breeding Sci 64(3):199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hulse JH, Laing EM, Pearson OE (1980) Sorghum and millets: their composition and nutritive value. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Ishikawa R, Nishimura A, Htun TM et al (2017) Estimation of loci involved in non-shattering of seeds in early rice domestication. Genetica 145(2):201–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kahlheber S (2004) Perlhirse und Baobab – archäobotanische Untersuchungen im Norden Burkina Fasos. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Johann Wolfgang-Universitat, Frankfurt. http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4965
  59. Kahlheber S, Neumann K (2007) The development of plant cultivation in semiarid West Africa. In: Denham TP, Iriarte J, Vrydaghs L (eds) Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp 320–345Google Scholar
  60. Kingwell-Banham E, Fuller DQ (2014) Brown top millet: origins and development. In: Smith C (ed) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer, New York, pp 1021–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Larson G, Piperno D, Allaby R et al (2014) Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies. Proc Nat Acad Sci 111(17):6139–6146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lin Z, Li X, Shannon LM et al (2012) Parallel domestication of the Shattering1 genes in cereals. Nat Genet 44:720–724CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Mabberley DJ (2008) A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  64. Majid AA (1989) Exploitation of plants in the Eastern Sahel (Sudan), 5,000–2,000 B.C. In: Krzyzaniak L, Kobusiewicz M (eds) Late prehistory of the Nile Basin and the Sahara. Poznan Museum, Pozan, pp 459–468Google Scholar
  65. Manning K, Pelling R, Higham T et al (2011) 4500-year old domesticated pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from the Tilemsi Valley, Mali: new insights into an alternative cereal domestication pathway. J Archaeol Sci 38(2):312–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manning K, Fuller DQ (2014) Early millet farmers in the Lower Tilemsi Valley, Northeastern Mali. In: Stevens CJ, Nixon S, Murray MA, Fuller DQ (eds) Archaeology of African plant use. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, pp 73–81Google Scholar
  67. Manzo A (1997) Les tessons “exotiques” du Groupe du Gash: un essai d’examen statistique. Cahier de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et d’Egyptologie de Lille 17(2):77–87Google Scholar
  68. Manzo A (2010) Exotic ceramic materials from Mersa Gawasis, Red Sea. In: Godlewski W, Łajtar A (eds) Between the cataracts. Proceedings of the 11th conference of Nubian studies, Warsaw, 27 August–2 September 2006, vol 2.2. Polish Centre for Mediterranean Archaeology, Warsaw, pp 439–453Google Scholar
  69. Manzo A (ed) (2012a) Italian archaeological expedition to the Sudan of the University of Naples L’Orientale. Report of the 2011 Field Season. Universita degli studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”, NaplesGoogle Scholar
  70. Manzo A (2012b) From the sea to the deserts and back: new research in Eastern Sudan. Brit Mus Stud Anc Egypt Sudan 18:75–106. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_journals/bmsaes/issue_18/manzo.aspx
  71. Manzo A (2013) The Italian archaeological expedition to the Eastern Sudan of the Università degli studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”. An overview of the 2012 field season. Newsletter di Archeologia CISA 4:253–271Google Scholar
  72. Manzo A (2014a) Preliminary report of the 2013 field season of the Italian archaeological expedition to the Eastern Sudan of the Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”. Newsletter di Archeologia CISA 5:375–412Google Scholar
  73. Manzo A (2014b) Beyond the fourth cataract. Perspectives for research in Eastern Sudan. In: Anderson JR, Welsby DA (eds) The fourth cataract and beyond. Proceedings of the 12th international conference for Nubian studies. Peeters, Leuven-Paris-Walpole, pp 1149–1157Google Scholar
  74. Manzo A (2015) Preliminary report of the 2014 field season of the Italian archaeological expedition to the Eastern Sudan of the Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”. Newsletter di Archeologia CISA 6:231–240Google Scholar
  75. Manzo A (in press) The chronology of the transition between the Gash group and the Jebel Mokram group of Eastern Sudan (2nd millennium BC). In: Honneger M (ed) Proceedings of the 13th international conference of the Society for Nubian StudiesGoogle Scholar
  76. Manzo A, Coppa A, Beldados A, Zoppi V (2011) Italian archaeological expedition to the Sudan of the University of Naples ‘L’Orientale’: 2010 field season. Universita degli studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”, NaplesGoogle Scholar
  77. Marshall F, Hildebrand EA (2002) Cattle before crops: the beginnings of food production in Africa. J World Prehist 16:99–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute G, Hunt HV, Jones MK (2012) Experimental approaches to understanding variation in grain size in Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) and its relevance for interpreting archaeobotanical assemblages. Veg Hist Archaeobot 21:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pelling R (2005) Garamantian agriculture and its significance in a wider North African context: the evidence of the plant remains from the Fazzan project. J N Afr Stud 10(3/4):397–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Phillips S (1995) Poaceae (Gramineac). In: Hedberg I, Edwards S (eds) Flora of Ethiopia and Eretria, vol 7. The National Herbarium, Biology Department, Addis Ababa University, Uppsala University, Department of Systematic Botany, Adis Ababa and UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  81. Pock Tsy J-ML, Lumaret R, Mayne D et al (2009) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests a West African centre of origin for the baobab, Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacoideae, Malvaceae). Mol Ecol 18:1707–1715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rowley-Conwy P, Deakin WJ, Shaw CH (1997) Ancient DNA from archaeological sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) from Qasr Ibrim, Nubia. Implications for domestication and evolution and a review of the archaeological evidence. Sahara 9:23–34Google Scholar
  83. Sadr K (1988) The development of nomadism: the view from ancient North East Africa. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Southern Methodist UniversityGoogle Scholar
  84. Sadr K (1991) The development of nomadism in ancient Northeast Africa. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shiner JL (1971) The prehistory and geology of Northern Sudan. Report to the National Science Foundation Grant GS 1192, DallasGoogle Scholar
  86. Shinnie PL, Anderson J (2004) The capital of Kush 2: Meroe excavations, 1973–1984, Meroitica 20. Harrassowitz, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  87. Shipton C, Helm R, Boivin N et al (2013) Intersections, networks and the genesis of social complexity on the Nyali Coast of East Africa. Afr Archaeol Rev 30:427–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Snowden JD (1936) Cultivated races of Sorghum. Adlard and Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Song J, Zhao Z, Fuller DQ (2013) The archaeological significance of immature millet grains: an experimental case study of Chinese millet crop processing. Veg Hist Archaeobot 22(2):141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stemler ABL (1990) A scanning electron microscopic analysis of plant impressions in pottery from the sites of Kadero, El Zakiab, Um Direiwa and El Kadada. Archéologie du Nil Moyen 4:87–105Google Scholar
  91. Wasylikowa K (2001) Site-75-6: Vegetation and subsistence of the Early Neolithic at Nabta Playa, Egypt, reconstructed from charred plant remains. In: Wendorf F, Schild R (eds) Holocene settlement of the Egyptian Sahara, The Archaeology of Nabta Playa, Vol 1. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 544–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wasylikowa K, Schild R, Wendorf F, Krolik H, Kubiak-Martens L, Harlan JR (1995) Archaeobotany of the Early Neolithic site E-75-6 at Nabta Playa, Western Desert, South Egypt (preliminary results). Acta Palaeobot 35:133–155Google Scholar
  93. Wiersema JH, Dahlberg J (2007) The nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Gramineae). Taxon 56(3):941–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Winchell F (2013) The Butana group ceramics and their place in the Neolithic and Post-Neolithic of Northeast Africa. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 83, British Archaeological Report Series 2459. Archaeopress, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  95. Winchell F, Stevens CJ, Murphy C, et al (2017) Evidence for sorghum domestication in fourth millennium BC Eastern Sudan: spikelet morphology from ceramic impressions of the Butana Group. Curr Anthropol 58(7):673–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alemseged Beldados
    • 1
  • Andrea Manzo
    • 2
  • Charlene Murphy
    • 3
  • Chris J. Stevens
    • 3
  • Dorian Q. Fuller
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Archaeology and Heritage ManagementAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of Asian, African and Mediterranean StudiesUniversity of Naples, “L’Orientale”NaplesItaly
  3. 3.Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations