Ventricular Arrhythmias: Sudden Cardiac Death

  • Granit Veseli
  • Adam S. Budzikowski


Approximately 50% of cardiac arrests occur in individuals without a history of heart disease. Undiagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for a large proportion of sudden deaths in persons older than 40 years of age. Prevention and treatment of CAD and other cardiac conditions can result in approximately 40% reduction in sudden cardiac death (SCD). Other causes, such as genetic disorders affecting either the integrity of the heart’s muscle or its electrical function, should be taken into account as well.


Sudden cardiac death Cardiac arrest Ventricular tachycardia Ventricular fibrillation Brugada syndrome Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 


  1. 1.
    Priori SG, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A, Blom N, Borggrefe M, Camm J, et al. [2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac Death. The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2016;17(2):108–70.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acc/Aha/Esc. . [ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden death]. Kardiologiia. 2011;51(7):65–96.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drezner JA, Sharma S, Baggish A, Papadakis M, Wilson MG, Prutkin JM, et al. International criteria for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes: consensus statement. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(9):704–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deyell MW, Krahn AD, Goldberger JJ. Sudden cardiac death risk stratification. Circ Res. 2015;116(12):1907–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sacher F, Lim HS, Derval N, Denis A, Berte B, Yamashita S, et al. Substrate mapping and ablation for ventricular tachycardia: the LAVA approach. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2015;26(4):464–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vereckei A. Current algorithms for the diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardias. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2014;10(3):262–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waldo AL, Camm AJ, deRuyter H, Friedman PL, MacNeil DJ, Pauls JF, et al. Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction. The SWORD Investigators. Survival with oral d-sotalol. Lancet. 1996;348(9019):7–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sugrue A. New electrocardiographic criteria to differentiate the type-2 Brugada pattern from electrocardiogram of healthy athletes with r′-wave in leads V1/V2. Europace. 2015;17(3):504–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilde AA, Antzelevitch C, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P, et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for the Brugada syndrome: consensus report. Circulation. 2002;106(19):2514–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Serra G, Baranchuk A, Bayes-De-Luna A, Brugada J, Goldwasser D, Capulzini L, et al. New electrocardiographic criteria to differentiate the Type-2 Brugada pattern from electrocardiogram of healthy athletes with r′-wave in leads V1/V2. Europace. 2014;16(11):1639–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bamimore A Fau-Budzikowski AS, Budzikowski AS. The demise of Bazett’s formula? (1421-9751 (Electronic)).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Postema PG, De Jong Js Fau-Van der Bilt IAC, Van der Bilt Ia Fau-Wilde AAM, Wilde AA. Accurate electrocardiographic assessment of the QT interval: teach the tangent. (1556-3871 (Electronic)).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, Klein H, Wilber DJ, Cannom DS, et al. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(12):877–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Poole JE, Packer DL, Boineau R, et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(3):225–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Granit Veseli
    • 1
  • Adam S. Budzikowski
    • 2
  1. 1.SUNY DownstateDivision of Cardiovascular MedicineBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine-EP SectionSUNY Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations