Advertisement

The Stony Road We Trod: Black Women, Education, and Tenure

  • Talia Esnard
  • Deirdre Cobb-Roberts
Chapter

Abstract

The focal point of our book is the comparative examination of Black women in higher education across the United States and the Caribbean, their professional experiences, and strategies for negotiating their institutional environment. We start therefore with an acknowledgement and shared epistemological position that while (post)colonialism, imperialism, and capitalism, as systems of domination, provide common sociohistorical experiences and structural realities for Black women in the United States and in the Caribbean, they do not represent a monolithic group; their localized experiences, and related specificities of such social locations, will produce diverse responses to systemic systems of oppression (Collins in Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Routledge, New York, 1990; Collins in Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Routledge, New York, 2000; Richardson, Bethea, Hayling, & Williamson-Taylor in Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2010). Through our comparative examination of Black women in academe therefore we center the experiences of African American and Afro-Caribbean scholars (including those who work in the United States and in the Caribbean).

References

  1. Adams, M. L. (2006). The quest for tenure: Job security and academic freedom. Catholic University Law Review, 56(1), 67–98.Google Scholar
  2. Agathangelou, M. A., & Ling, L. H. M. (2002). An unten(ur)able position: The politics of teaching for women of color in the US. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 4(3), 368–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguirre, A. (2000). Women and minority faculty in the academic workplace: Recruitment, retention, and academic culture (Vol. 27, No. 6). San Francisco: ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report and Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Alfred, V. M. (2001). Reconceptualising marginality from the margins: Perspectives of African American tenured female faculty at a White research university. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 25(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  5. Alleyne, H. McD. M. (1995). Nationhood from the schoolbag: A historical analysis of the development of secondary education in Trinidad and Tobago. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.Google Scholar
  6. Altbach, G. P. (2002). How are faculty faring in other countries? In R. P. Chait (Ed.), The questions of tenure (pp. 160–181). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  7. American Association of University Professors. (1915). Appendix 1: 1915 declaration of principles on academic freedom and academic tenure. Washington, DC: AAUP. http://cdm16064.contentdmoc.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p266901coll4/id/1928.
  8. American Association of University Professors. (1999). On collegiality as a criterion for faculty evaluation. Academe, 85(5), 69–70.Google Scholar
  9. American Association of University Professors. (2000). Promoting good practice in tenure evaluation: Advice for tenured faculty, department chairs, and academic administrators. Washington, DC: American Council on Higher Education.Google Scholar
  10. American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson, J. D. (1988). The education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anthias, F., & Yuval-Davis, N. (1983). Contextualising feminism: Gender, ethnic and class divisions. Feminist Review, 15, 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Austin, I. O’B. (2009). Understanding higher education governance restructuring: The case of the University of the West Indies. Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/26855.
  14. Bacchus, M. K. (1994). Education as and for legitimacy: Developments in West Indian education between 1846 and 1895. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Baez, B. (2000). Race-related service and faculty of color: Conceptualizing critical agency in academe. The Journal of Higher Education, 39(3), 363–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bailey, B. (2009). Gender and political economy in Caribbean education systems: An agenda for inclusion. Cambridge, UK: Commonwealth Educational Partnerships. Retrieved from http://www.cedol.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/102-105-2009.pdf.
  17. Baksh, J. I. (1986). Education and equality of opportunity in Trinidad and Tobago. Caribbean Journal of Education, 13, 6–26.Google Scholar
  18. Barriteau, E. (Ed.). (2003). Confronting power, theorizing gender: Interdisciplinary perspectives in the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bastick, T. (2004). Commonwealth degrees from class to equivalence: Changing to grade point averages in the Caribbean. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 86–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blair, E. (2013). Higher education practice in Trinidad and Tobago and the shadow of colonialism. Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies, 38(3), 85–92.Google Scholar
  21. Boyer, E. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, J., & Chevannes, B. (1998). Why man stay so: An examination of gender socialization in the Caribbean. Mona, Jamaica: Caribbean Child Development Centre School of Continuing Studies, The University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, M. C., II, & Dancy, T. E., II. (2010). Predominantly white institutions. In K. Lomotey (Ed.), Encycopedia of African American education (pp. 524–526). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Bruner, D. Y. (2010). Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA)—Law and higher education. In C. J. Russo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of law and higher education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Campbell, C. (1997). Endless education: Main currents in the education system of modern Trinidad and Tobago, 1939–1986. Mona, Jamaica: The Press, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell, C., & O’Meara, K. (2013). Faculty agency: Departmental contexts that matter in faculty careers. Research in Higher Education, 54(4), 49–74.Google Scholar
  27. Carty, L. (1988). The political economy of gender inequality at the University of the West Indies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  28. Chait, R. P. (2002). Gleanings. In R. P. Chait (Ed.), The questions of tenure (pp. 309–322). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Chevannes, B. (1999). What we sow and what we reap: Problems in the cultivation of male identity in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: Grace, Kennedy Foundation.Google Scholar
  30. Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing intersectionality in sociological research: A critical analysis of inclusion, interactions, and institutions in the study of inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28, 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark, E. (1957). My mother who fathered me: A study of families in three communities of Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  32. Clark, B. (1987). The higher education system. Berkeley: University of South California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Clarke, C. (2013). Religion and ethnicity as differentiating factors in the social structure of the Caribbean (MMG Working Paper No. 13-06). Göttingen, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity. http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/item/escidoc:1786453:2/component/escidoc:1786452/WP_13-06_Clarke_Religion-and-Ethnicity.pdf.
  34. Cobley, G. A. (2000). The historical development of higher education in the Anglophone Caribbean. In G. D. Howe (Ed.), Higher education in the Caribbean: Past, present and future directions (pp. 1–23). Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  35. Collins, P. H. (1986). Learning from the outsider within: The sociological significance of Black feminist thought. Social Problems, 33(6), 514–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Collins, P. H. (1991). On our own terms: Self-defined standpoints and curriculum transformation. NWSA Journal, 3(3), 367–381.Google Scholar
  38. Collins, P. H. (2000). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Cooper, T. L. (2006). The sista’ network: African-American women faculty successfully negotiating the road to tenure. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Cress, C. M., & Hart, J. (2009). Playing soccer on the football field: The persistence of gender inequalities for women faculty. Equity & Excellence in Education, 42, 473–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cumberbatch, J. (2000). Managing the academy: Aspects of the law relating to university administration. In G. D. Howe (Ed.), Higher education in the Caribbean: Past, present and future directions (pp. 186–236). Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  42. Cuthbert, M. V. (1987). Education and marginality: A study of the Negro woman college graduate. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY (Original work published 1942).Google Scholar
  43. Davis, D. J., Reynolds, R., & Bertrand Jones, T. (2011). Promoting the inclusion of tenure earning Black women in academe: Lessons for leaders in education. Florida Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 5(1), 28–41.Google Scholar
  44. Dawkins, L. S. (2012). Historically black college or university or predominantly white institution? Choosing your institutional path. In T. B. Jones, L. S. Dawkins, M. M. McClinton, & M. H. Glover (Eds.), Pathways to higher education administration for African American women (pp. 4–17). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. De George, R. (2003). Ethics, academic freedom and academic tenure. Journal of Academic Ethics, 1, 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Defleur, M. L. (2007). Raising the question: What is tenure and how do I get it? Communication Education, 56(1), 106–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Diamond, R. M. (1993). Instituting change in faculty reward systems. New Directions for Higher Education, 1993(81), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Diamond, R. M. (1999). Aligning faculty rewards with institutional mission. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Diamond, R. M. (2002). The mission-driven faculty reward system. In R. M. Diamond (Ed.), Field guide to academic leadership (pp. 271–291). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  50. Diamond, R. M., & Adam, B. E. (2004). Balancing institutional, disciplinary, and faculty priorities with public and social needs: Defining scholarship for the 21st century. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 3(1), 5–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Diamond, R. M., Gray, P. J., & Adam, B. E. (1996). A national study on the relative importance of research and undergraduate teaching at colleges and universities. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, Center for Instructional Development.Google Scholar
  52. Dill, B. T., & Zambrana, R. E. (2009). Critical thinking about inequality. In B. T. Dill & R. E. Zambrana (Eds.), Emerging intersections: Race, class, and gender in theory, policy and practice (pp. 229–252). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Du Bois, W. E. B. (2003). Darkwater: Voices from behind the veil. Amherst, NY: Prometheus (Original work published 1920).Google Scholar
  54. Elliott, J. E. (2011). Managing academic freedom: Recent cross-Atlantic developments. Prometheus, 29(2), 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ellis, P. (2003). Women, gender and development in the Caribbean: Reflections and projections. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  56. Esnard, T. (2014). St. Lucia: Historical and contemporary issues-developmentalist approaches. In E. Thomas (Ed.), Education in the commonwealth Caribbean and Netherlands Antilles (pp. 323–342). London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  57. Evans, Y. S. (2007). Women of color in American higher education. Thought and Action: The NEA Higher Education Journal, 23 (Fall), 131–138.Google Scholar
  58. Evans, G. L., & Cokley, K. O. (2008). African American women and the academy: Using career mentoring to increase research productivity. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 2(1), 50–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Feheney, J. M. (2001). Catholic education in Trinidad in the nineteenth century. Ireland: Four Courts Press.Google Scholar
  60. Figueroa, M. (2000). Making sense of the male experience: The case of academic underachievement in the english-speaking Caribbean. IDS Bulletin, 31(2), 68–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Figueroa, M. (2004). Male privileging and male ‘academic underperformance’ in Jamaica. In R. E. Reddock (Ed.), Interrogating Caribbean masculinities: Theoretical and empirical analyses (pp. 166–237). Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  62. Finkin, W. M. (1996). The case for tenure. Ithaca, NY: LR Press.Google Scholar
  63. Fries-Britt, S., & Kelly, T. B. (2005). Retaining each other: Narratives of two African American women in the academy. The Urban Review, 37(3), 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Glover, M. H. (2012). Existing pathways: A historical overview of Black women in higher education administration. In T. B. Jones, L. S. Dawkins, M. M. McClinton, & M. H. Glover (Eds.), Pathways to higher education administration for African American women (pp. 4–17). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  65. Gordon, S. (1963). A century of West Indian education. London, UK: Longman.Google Scholar
  66. Gregory, S. T. (1999). Black women in the academy: The secrets to success and achievement. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  67. Gregory, S. T. (2001). Black faculty women in the academy: History, status and future. Journal of Negro Education, 70(3), 124–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Griffin, K. A., Bennett, J. C., & Harris, J. (2013). Marginalizing merit? Gender differences in Black faculty D/discourses of tenure, advancement, and professional success. The Review of Higher Education, 36(4), 489–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Griffith, J. (1990). The education reform act: Abolishing the independent status of the universities. Education and the Law, 2(3), 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hamilton, M. (2015). Women and higher education in the commonwealth Caribbean: UWI: A progressive institution for women? Caribbean Review of Gender Studies, 9, 245–286.Google Scholar
  71. Harley, S. (2002). The impact of research selectivity on academic work and identity in UK universities. Studies in Higher Education, 27(2), 187–206.Google Scholar
  72. Harley, D. A. (2008). Maids of academe: African American women faculty at predominately White institutions. Journal of Studies, 12, 19–36.Google Scholar
  73. Harley, S., & Terborg-Penn, R. (Eds.). (1997). The Afro-American woman: Struggles and images. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.Google Scholar
  74. Herbert, S. (2012). What have you done for me lately?: Black female faculty and ‘talking back’ to the tenure process at PWIs. In the Salon, 35(2), 99–102.Google Scholar
  75. Hickling, F., Kahwa, I., Monroe, T., Shepherd, V., & Wint, A. (2003). Strategic challenges confronting UWI Mona an analysis & response. Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies. Retrieved from https://www.mona.uwi.edu/opair/strategic-plan/strategic-challenges-confronting-uwi-mona.pdf.
  76. Higher Education Statistic Agency. (2017). Staff in higher education 2015/2016. Retrieved from https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/publications/staff-2015-16/introduction.
  77. Hirshfield, L. E., & Joseph, T. D. (2012). We need a woman, we need a Black woman: Gender, race and identity taxation in the academy. Gender and Education, 24(2), 213–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Holmes, S. L. (1999). Black women academicians speak out: Race, class, and gender in narratives of higher education. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=13458&context=rtd.
  79. Holmes, S. L., Land, L. D., & Hinton-Hudson, V. D. (2007). Race still matters: Considerations for mentoring Black women in academe. Negro Educational Review, 58(1–2), 105–129.Google Scholar
  80. hooks, b. (1989). Talking back: Thinking feminist, thinking Black. Boston, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
  81. Howard-Vital, M. (1989). African American women in higher education: Struggling to gain identity. Journal of Black Studies, 20(2), 180–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Howe, G. (2000). Our coming of age: Historical reflections on developments in Anglophone Caribbean education. CARICOM Perspective: A Century of Achievement, 2(69), 36–69.Google Scholar
  83. Huber, M. T. (2002). Faculty evaluation and the development of academic careers. New Directions for Institutional Research, 114, 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hutcheson, P. A. (1998). Traditions, policies, and practices. The Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Jean-Marie, G. (2014). Living on the margin as an outsider-within in the academy: An auto-ethnography study of a Caribbean immigrant scholar. In J. L. Santamaria, G. Jean-Marie, & C. M. Grant (Eds.), Cross-cultural women scholars in academe: Intergenerational voices (pp. 76–92). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Johnson-Bailey, J., & Cervero, R. M. (2008). Different worlds and divergent paths: Academic careers defined by race and gender. Harvard Educational Review, 78(2), 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jules, D. (2006). Power and educational development: Small states and the labor of Sisyphus. In M. Afolayan, D. Jules, & R. Koehl (Eds.), Current discourse on education in developing nations: Essays in honor of B. Robert Tabachnick and Robert Koehl (pp. 17–29). New York, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  88. Jules, T. D. (2010). Rethinking education for the Caribbean: A radical approach. In P. Mayo (Ed.), Education in small states: Global imperatives, regional initiatives and local dilemmas (pp. 79–90). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Karran, M. (2009). Academic freedom: In justification of a universal ideal. Studies in Higher Education, 34(2), 263–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kassim, H.-S., Dass, A., & Best, B. (2015). Higher education and statistical review: Issues and trends in higher education. University Office of Planning and Development, The University of the West Indies. Retrieved from http://www.uwi.edu/sf-docs/default-source/uopd—general/hesr2013–issues-and-trends-in-higher-education-march2015-for-univer-council.pdf?sfvrsn=2.
  91. Lavia, J. (2007). Girls and special education in the Caribbean. Support for Learning, 22(4), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leo-Rhynie, E. (1993). The Jamaican family: Continuity and change. Kingston, Jamaica: Grace Kennedy Foundation.Google Scholar
  93. Leo-Rhynie, E. (1998). Socialisation and the development of gender identity: Theoretical formulations and Caribbean research. In C. Barrow (Ed.), Caribbean portraits: Essays on gender ideologies and identities (pp. 234–252). Kingston: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  94. Leo-Rhynie, E. (2005). A woman’s academic career: Seasons of change and development. IDEAZ, 4(1–2), 38–49.Google Scholar
  95. Leo-Rhynie, E., & Hamilton, M. (1996). Women in higher education—A Caribbean perspective. In D. R. Craig (Ed.), Education in the West Indies: Developments and perspectives (pp. 75–86). Mona, Jamaica: UWI Institute for Social and Economic Studies.Google Scholar
  96. Lindsay, K. (1997). Caribbean male: An endangered species? (Working paper No. 1). Mona, Jamaica: Center for Gender and Development Studies, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  97. London, N. A. (2002). Curriculum and pedagogy in the development of colonial imagination: A case study. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 10(1), 95–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Louisy, P., & Crossley, M. (2009). Tertiary education in St. Lucia: Challenges and priorities within the evolving global environment. In M. Martin & M. Bray (Eds.), Tertiary education in small states: Planning in the context of globalization (pp. 149–166). Paris, France: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  99. Lucas, L. (2006). The research game in academic life. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press & the Society for Research into Higher Education.Google Scholar
  100. Marginson, S., & Considine, M. (2000). The enterprise university: Power, governance and reinvention in Australia. Cambridge, UK: The University of Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  101. Mark, P. (1991). Status attainment and gender in scientific and technological institutions in Trinidad and Tobago: Where to next? In Selwyn N. Ryan (Ed.), Social and occupational stratification in contemporary Trinidad and Tobago (pp. 250–255). Institute for Social and Economic Research, St. Augustine, Trinidad: The University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  102. Martin-DeLeon, P. (2010). Increasing the Caribbean’s human capital in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields: The pivotal role of mentoring. Retrieved from http://www.caribank.org/uploads/publications-reports/lecture-series/DeLeon_WGDemas.pdf.
  103. Massiah, J. (1986). Women in the Caribbean project: An overview. Social and Economic Studies, 35(2), 1–29.Google Scholar
  104. Massiah, J., Leo-Rhynie, E., & Bailey, B. (2016). The UWI journey: Recollections and reflections. Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  105. Mawhinney, L. (2011). Othermothering: A personal narrative exploring relationships between Black female faculty and students. The Negro Educational Review, 62(1–4), 213–232.Google Scholar
  106. McCallum, D. D. (2015). A novice is a novice at any level: A narrative of the experiences of two female academics in their beginning years of teaching in a higher education institution in Jamaica. In B. H. Marina & L. Ben (Eds.), Mentoring away at the glass ceiling in academia (pp. 81–110). Lanham, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  107. McPherson, M. S., & Schapiro, M. O. (1999). Tenure issues in higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1), 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Menand, L. (1996). The limits of academic freedom. In L. Menand (Ed.), The future of academic freedom (pp. 3–20). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  109. Meyer, M., & Warren-Gordon, K. (2013). Marginal mentoring in the contact space: Diversified mentoring relationships at a midsized midwestern state university (MMSU). The Qualitative Report, 18(38), 1–18.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, E. (1986). The marginalisation of the Black male: Insights from the teaching profession. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  111. Miller, E. (1991). Men at risk. Kingston, Jamaica: Jamaica Publishing House.Google Scholar
  112. Mohammed, P. (2001). Gendered realities: Essays in Caribbean feminist thought. Barbados: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  113. Mohammed, P., & Perkins, A. (1999). Caribbean women at the crossroads: The paradox of motherhood among women of Barbados, St. Lucia and Dominica. Kingston, Jamaica: Canoe Press, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  114. Momsen, J. (Ed.). (1993). Women and change in the Caribbean: A Pan-Caribbean perspective. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Moore, S. (2011). Perceptions of tenure among university faculty (Unpublished manuscript). Tampa: Department of Adult, Continuing and Higher Education, University of South Florida.Google Scholar
  116. National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Digest of education statistics: Table 315.20. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d15/tables/dt15_315.20.asp.
  117. Nettleford, R. (2003). Caribbean cultural identity: The case of Jamaica: An essay in cultural dynamics. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  118. Omeara, K. A. (2006). Encouraging multiple forms of scholarship in faculty reward systems: Have academic cultures really changed? New Directions for Institutional Research, 129, 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Parry, O. (2000). Male underachievement in high school education in Jamaica, Barbados, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Mona, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press and the Centre for Gender and Development Studies.Google Scholar
  120. Parry, O. (2004). Masculinities, myths and educational underachievement: Jamaica, Barbados and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In R. Reddock (Ed.), Interrogating Caribbean masculinities: Theoretical and empirical analyses (pp. 167–184). Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  121. Patitu, C. L., & Hinton, K. G. (2003). The experiences of African American women faculty and administrators in higher education: Has anything changed? In M. F. Howard-Hamilton (Ed.), New directions for student services: Meeting the needs of African American women (pp. 79–93). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  122. Perkins, L. M. (1983). The impact of the “cult of true womanhood” on the education of Black women. Journal of Social Issues, 39(3), 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Perkins, L. M. (1988). The education of Black women in the 19th century. In J. M. Fargeher & F. Howe (Eds.), Women and higher education in American history (pp. 64–86). New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  124. Pittman, C. (2010). Race and gender oppression in the classroom: The experiences of women faculty of color with White male students. Teaching Sociology, 38(3), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ponjuan, L., Conley, V. M., & Trower, C. (2011). Career stage differences in pre-track faculty perceptions of professional and personal relationships with colleagues. The Journal of Higher Education, 82(3), 319–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Premdas, R. (2007). Trinidad and Tobago: Ethnic conflict, inequality and public sector governance. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Reddock, R. (1998). Contestations over national culture in Trinidad and Tobago: Considerations of ethnicity, class and gender. In C. Barrow (Ed.), Caribbean portraits (pp. 414–435). Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  128. Reynolds, A. J. (1999). Grade retention ad school adjustment: An exploratory analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 10, 101–121.Google Scholar
  129. Rice, E. R., & Sorcinelli, D. M. (2002). Can the tenure process be improved? In R. P. Chait (Ed.), The questions of tenure (pp. 101–124). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Richardson, T. Q., Bethea, A. R., Hayling, C. C., & Williamson-Taylor, C. (2010). African and Afro-Caribbean American identity development: Theory and practice implications. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (3rd ed., pp. 227–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  131. Rockquemore, K.-A., & Laszloffy, T. (2008). The Black academic’s guide to winning tenure without losing your soul. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  132. Rudolph, F. (1990). The American college and university: A history. Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  133. Ruffins, P. (1997). The fall of the house of tenure: Special report. Black Issues in Higher Education, 14(7), 18–26.Google Scholar
  134. Safa, H. (1995). The myth of the male breadwinner: Women and industrialization in the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  135. Schiewer, H.-J., Jehle, C., & Maes, K. (2014). Tenure and tenure track at LERU universities: Models for attractive research careers in Europe (Advice Paper No. 17). Belgium: LERU. Retrieved from https://www.ub.edu/portal/documents/34829/458399/LERU_AP17_tenure_track_final%5B1%5D.pdf/71d48297-0158-4785-bbcf-b2976575e769.
  136. Schuster, J., & Finkelstein, M. (2006). The American faculty: The restructuring of academic work and careers. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Sherlock, P., & Bennett, H. (1998). The story of the Jamaican people. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  138. Shollen, S. L., Bland, C. J., Taylor, A. T., Weber-Main, A. M., & Mulcahy, P. A. (2008). Establishing effective mentoring relationships for faculty, especially across gender and ethnicity. American Academic, 4(1), 131–158.Google Scholar
  139. Smedley, A. (1998). “Race” and the construction of human identity. American Anthropologist, 100(3), 690–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stanley, C. A. (2006). Coloring the academic landscape: Faculty of color breaking the silence in predominantly White colleges and universities. American Educational Research Journal, 43(4), 701–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stone, C. 1973. Class, race and political behaviour in urban Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  142. Taylor, E. (1997). Women in school administration. In E. Leo-Rhynie, B. Bailey, & C. Barrow (Eds.), Gender: A Caribbean multidisciplinary perspective (pp. 183–198). Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  143. Tewarie, B. (2008). Concept paper for the development of a Caricom strategy plan for tertiary education services in the Caricom Single Market and Economy (CSME). Trinidad and Tobago: Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business, University of the West Indies. Retrieved from http://www.caricom.org/jsp/single_market/services_regime/concept_paper_tertiary_education.pdf.
  144. The snail like progress of Blacks into faculty ranks of higher education [Editorial]. (2007). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.jbhe.com/news_views/54_black-faculty-progress.html.
  145. Thelin, J. R. (2011). A history of American higher education. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Tierney, W. G. (1998). Tenure is dead, long live tenure. In W. G. Tierney (Ed.), The responsive university: Restructuring for high performance (pp. 38–61). Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Tierney, W. G., & Bensimon, E. (1996). Promotion and tenure: Community and socialization in academe. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  148. Tilky, L. (2001). Globalization and education in the postcolonial world: Towards a conceptual framework. Comparative Education, 37(2), 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tillman, L. C. (2011). Sometimes I’ve felt like a motherless child. In S. Jackson & R. Gregory Johnson III (Eds.), The Black professoriate: Negotiating a habitable space in the academy (pp. 91–107). New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  150. Trower, A. C. (2002). What is current policy? In R. P. Chait (Ed.), The questions of tenure (pp. 32–68). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Turner, C. S. V. (2002). Women faculty of color in academe: Living with multiple marginality. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(1), 74–93.Google Scholar
  152. Turner, R. S. (2008). Neoliberal ideology: History, concepts and politics. Edinburgh: Edinburg University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Turner, C. S. V., González, J. C., & Wong, K. (2011). Faculty women of color: The critical nexus of race and gender. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 4(4), 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Turner, C. S. V., & Myers, S. L. (2000). Faculty of color in academe: Bittersweet success. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  155. Turner, C. S. V., Myers, S. L., Jr., & Creswell, J. W. (1999). Exploring underrepresentation: the case of faculty of color in the Midwest. The Journal of Higher Education, 70(10), 27–59.Google Scholar
  156. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (1998). UNESCO recommendation concerning the status of higher education teaching personnel. Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001102/110220e.pdf#page=32.
  157. United States Agency for International Development. (2005). A gender analysis of the educational achievement of boys and girls in the Jamaican educational system. Retrieved from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/pubs/ga_education_jamaican.pdf.
  158. University of the West Indies. (2012). Strategic plan 2012–2017: Be heard. Be informed. Be empowered. Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies. Retrieved from http://uwispace.sta.uwi.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2139/39492/UWI%20Strategic%20Plan%202012-2017%20%5BSummary%20Booklet%5D.pdf?sequence=1.
  159. Wallace, S. L., Moore, S. E., Wilson, L. L., & Hart, G. B. (2012). African American women in the academy: Quelling the myth of presumed incompetence. In G. Gutierrez y Muhs, Y. F. Niemann, G. C. Gonzalez, & P. A. Harris (Eds.), Presumed incompetent: The intersections of race and class for women in academia (pp. 421–438). Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  160. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2012). Academic motherhood: How faculty manage work and family. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Whicker, L. M., Kronenfeld, J. J., & Strickland, R.-A. (1993). Getting tenure: Survival skills for scholars (Vol. 8). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  162. Whiteley, P. (2002). Gender issues in science education. In P. Mohammed (Ed.), Gendered realities: Essays in Caribbean feminist thought (pp. 183–200). Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  163. Williams, G., & Harvey, C. (1993). Staff development and gender equity in the Commonwealth Caribbean universities: The experience of the University of the West Indies. In H. Mukherjee & M. L. Kearney (Eds.), Women in higher education management (pp. 187–202). Paris, France: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.Google Scholar
  164. Wolf-Wendel, L., & Ward, K. A. (2006). Academic life and motherhood: Variations by institutional type. Higher Education, 52(3), 487–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Woods, R. D. (2006). A case for revisiting tenure requirements. Thought & Action, 2006, 135–142.Google Scholar
  166. Yuval-Davis, N. (2006). Intersectionality and feminist politics. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 13(3), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yuval-Davis, N. (2011). The politics of belonging. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago
  2. 2.University of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations