Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Beginners

  • Ulrich Spandau
  • Heinrich Heimann


The following chapter describes for beginners a standard pars plana vitrectomy step-by-step. Several drawings are included.


Pars plana vitrectomy step-by-step Phacoemulsification Focusing Core vitrectomy PVD Laser photocoagulation Tamponade Fluid × air exchange 

Supplementary material

Video 4.1

Insertion of trocar cannulas (WMV 38249 kb)

Video 4.2

27G asteroid hyalosis TDC cutter (WMV 96076 kb)

Video 4.3

Combined phaco + PPV (WMV 348343 kb)

Video 4.4

Difficult PVD (WMV 11611 kb)

Video 4.5

PVD with Atkinson cannula (WMV 11362 kb)

Video 4.6

27G difficult PVD (WMV 85291 kb)


  1. 1.
    Lemley CA, Han DP. An age-based method for planning sclerotomy placement during paediatric vitrectomy: a 12-year experience. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2007;105:86–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Spandau
    • 1
  • Heinrich Heimann
    • 2
  1. 1.University Eye HospitalUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Royal Liverpool University HospitalLiverpoolUK

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