Biological Fixation: The Role of Screw Surface Design

  • Robert S. Liddell
  • John E. DaviesEmail author


Screws are a type of “simple machine”. They have the ability to transform rotational torque into a linear force along the long axis of the screw body. When properly designed they can be easily placed yet resist large loads, proving useful for the fixation of bone fractures or as a stable base for dental prosthetics. However, bone is a living tissue that, if damaged, is resorbed and remodelled, which potentially diminishes the initial stability of the implant. Thus, the long-term placement of an implant in bone requires the re-establishment of homeostasis in the peri-implant region to support the implant—the process of osseointegration. The rate at which such bony homeostasis is achieved, and how strongly the formed interface can anchor the implant, is dependent on the implant geometry, micro-topography and nano-topography. We describe herein the process of osseointegration and how it is influenced by the various scale ranges of implant topography. In addition a curve fitting approach is described which has been able to quantify the rate and strength of osseointegration.


Osseointegration Implant topography Nanotopography Microtopography Macrotopography Implant geometry Simple machines Screw implants Screw design Screw components Force vectors 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of DentistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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