Axillary Hyperhidrosis and Bromhidrosis: The Dermatologist’s Point of View

  • Roberta Vasconcelos
  • José Antonio SanchesJr.


Primary focal hyperhidrosis of the axillae (axillary hyperhidrosis) is a prevalent condition that affects quality of life. It has a genetic component and usually occurs during puberty and worsens with stress, exercise, and high external temperature. Classically, the dermatological treatments are topical (antiperspirants with aluminum chloride and glycopyrrolate 2%), injectable (botulinum toxin), or systemic (oral anticholinergics, β-blockers, benzodiazepines, and clonidine). Recently, new drugs and technologies have emerged for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, such as oxybutynin gel, botulinum toxin for transdermal application, microwave energy thermolysis, radiofrequency applied with micro-needles, lasers, and microfocused ultrasound. These treatments are discussed in detail in this chapter. Bromhidrosis is a condition more common in men after puberty and is caused by the increased secretion of the sweat glands associated with local bacterial proliferation. The treatment includes local hygiene, antiseptic soap, antiperspirant, and topical antibiotics. In addition, epilation and reduction of local sweat can be performed.


Axillary hyperhidrosis Sweat Bromhidrosis Dermatologic treatments Sweat glands Physiopathology 

Suggested Reading

  1. Clerico C, Fernandez J, Camuzard O, Chignon-Sicard B, Ihrai T. Axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinium a toxin treatment: review. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2016;61(1):60–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fujimoto T. Pathophysiology and treatment of hyperhidrosis. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2016;51:86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Grabell DA, Hebert AA. Current and emerging medical therapies for primary hyperhidrosis. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2017;7(1):25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kurta AO, Glaser DA. Emerging nonsurgical treatments for hyperhidrosis. Thorac Surg Clin. 2016;26(4):395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Semkova K, Gergovska M, Kazandjieva J, Tsankov N. Hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, and chromhidrosis: fold (intertriginous) dermatoses. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(4):483–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberta Vasconcelos
    • 1
  • José Antonio SanchesJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of DermatologySão Paulo Cancer Institute—ICESPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology, School of MedicineUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations