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Adipokines, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity

  • Hyokjoon Kwon
  • Jeffrey E. Pessin
Chapter

Abstract

Humans have highly integrated system to regulate energy storage and expenditure. Adipose tissue is a major depot to store triglycerides during energy excess and release fatty acids and glycerol for systemic energy need. However, adipose tissues have also been shown as highly active endocrine and metabolically important organs to modulate energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue plays an essential role in non-shivering thermogenesis and in energy dissipation that can serve to protect against obesity. White adipose tissue, referred as either subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue, has been shown to secret an array of molecules, termed adipokines. These adipokines function as circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including the brain, liver, muscle, immune system, and adipose tissue itself, resulting in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, inflammatory responses in adipose tissue have also been shown as one of the major mechanisms to induce peripheral tissue glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although leptin and adiponectin regulate feeding behavior and energy expenditure, these adipokines are also involved in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation. Adipose tissue secretes various pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines to modulate inflammation and insulin resistance. In obese humans and rodent models, the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines is enhanced and can directly result in insulin resistance. Collectively, these findings have suggested that obesity-induced insulin resistance may result, at least in part, from an imbalance in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines at adipose tissues. Thus, we will describe the recent progress regarding the physiological and molecular function of adipokines in the obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Molecular PharmacologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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