Norway Spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst

  • Saila VarisEmail author
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 84)


The increasing use of wood as a source of bioenergy, bio-products and conservation of more natural (old) forests with high biodiversity, compel us to find means to increase forest productivity. Using the best quality regeneration material can increase the economic gain obtained from future silvicultured forests. Norway spruce is an important raw material in the European forest industry and it is the most-planted tree species in Finland. However, there is periodically a lack of high-quality Norway spruce seed due to irregular flowering of the species, as well as pests and pathogens which can lower the productivity of seed orchards. To ensure availability of good-quality forest regeneration material, effective vegetative propagation methods like somatic embryogenesis (SE) can be introduced. SE has become the method of choice for vegetative propagation of conifers (Sutton in Ann For Sci 59:657–661, 2002) due to its high multiplication rate and the maintenance of juvenility via cryopreservation that allows long-term field testing of materials.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural Resources Institute FinlandPunkaharjuFinland

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