The Future of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury

  • David S. Hersh
  • Beth M. Ansel
  • Howard M. EisenbergEmail author


Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have repeatedly failed to demonstrate a definitive benefit of any neuroprotective agent for moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). As a result, TBI researchers have called for a critical reappraisal of the design, conduct, and analysis of TBI clinical trials. Some have argued that key limitations in preclinical research continue to hinder the translation of bench science to the clinical world. Others have focused on the details of the clinical trials themselves, arguing that the heterogeneous nature of TBI calls for unique considerations with regard to trial design, sample size, subject recruitment, outcome measurement, and statistical analysis in future clinical trials.


Clinical trial Ordinal analysis Sample size Prognostic model Traumatic brain injury 


Acknowledgments and Disclosures

This work was supported in part by the Department of Defense PTSD/TBI Clinical Consortium (HME). Dr. Eisenberg is an unpaid consultant for InSightec Ltd. and is an independent neurotrauma consultant to the National Football League.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • David S. Hersh
    • 1
  • Beth M. Ansel
    • 2
  • Howard M. Eisenberg
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, The National Institutes of HealthSpencervilleUSA

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