An Historical Perspective on Fission-Track Thermochronology

  • Anthony J. HurfordEmail author
Part of the Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment book series (STEGE)


This chapter reviews the background, beginnings and early development of fission-track (FT) thermochronology. In the 1930s, it was discovered that uranium would break into two lighter products when bombarded with neutrons and, subsequently, that uranium was capable of natural, spontaneous fission. The fission process produced damage tracks in solid-state detectors, which could be revealed by chemical etching and observed by electron and, later, by optical microscopy. Fleischer, Price and Walker at the General Electric R&D laboratories developed diverse track-etching procedures, estimates of track registration and stability in different materials, track formation models, uranium determination in terrestrial, lunar and meteorite samples, neutron dosimetry and mineral dating using 238U spontaneous fission. Application to dating of natural and man-made glass was frustrated by low-uranium content and relative ease of track fading (annealing). In the 1970s–1980s, most FT analyses used apatite, zircon and titanite (sphene) to date tephra and acid intrusive rocks with the recognition of differing sensitivities of track annealing in each mineral. Studies in the Alps showed apatite with its greater susceptibility to annealing could provide estimates of the timing and rate of exhumation. The landmark 1980 Pisa FT Workshop highlighted problems with FT system calibration and emphasised the value of annealing in apatite to reveal thermal history. System calibration eventually reached a consensus agreement in 1988 at the Besançon FT Workshop with the majority of analysts adopting the zeta comparative approach. Multiple laboratory and borehole studies have determined the conditions for track annealing in apatite leading to widespread applications in exhumation, sedimentary basin, hydrocarbon exploration and other areas.



This chapter represents my attempt to piece together the story of tracks as I recall it, underlining the landmarks in the development of the method and mentioning some of the people responsible. I hope that this story will serve as a foundation for others, showing them how the FT method arrived where it is today and encouraging them to use and develop fission tracks to help understand all manner of geoscience problems. Remember that no chronometric method provides all the answers and measured data and modelled thermal histories should be evaluated against all other geological information. My apologies go to those whom I have omitted to mention or misrepresented—my sins are not wilful. I thank Andy Carter, Paul Green, Andy Gleadow, Diane Seward and Pieter Vermeesch who offered valuable comments on earlier drafts—some of which I took on board!—and Marco G. Malusà for drafting the figures. The previous volumes of Fleischer et al. (1975) and Wagner and van den Haute (1992) provide much more information on the basics of track formation, registration and etching, and I heartily commend them. I have made many good friendships in the FT community over the past 45 years and owe a debt of gratitude to all my colleagues for their support, discussion, enlightenment and correction. I especially acknowledge my gratitude to three people who have now passed away: Frank Fitch who started me thinking about tracks; and Bob Fleischer and Chuck Naeser who took much time and patience to teach me the trade. I am indebted to Günther Wagner for facilitating my sojourn in Berne, Switzerland; to Andy Gleadow, Paul Green and Andy Carter for their longstanding collaboration and personal friendships; and to my colleagues, students and friends past and present in the laboratory at University College London and Birkbeck, University of London, especially Rex Galbraith. I thank you all.


  1. Aumento F (1969) The mid-Atlantic ridge near 45° N.V. Fission track and ferro-manganese chronology. Can J Earth Sci 6:1431–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbarand J, Carter A, Wood I, Hurford T (2003) Compositional and structural control of fission-track annealing in apatite. Chem Geol 198:107–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumhauer H (1894) Die Resultate der Aetzmethode in der krystallographischen Forschung. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 131 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellemans F, De Corte F, van den Haute P (1995) Composition of SRM and CN U-doped glasses: significance for their use as thermal neutron fluence monitors in fission-track dating. Radiat Meas 24:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhandari N, Bhat SG, Lal D, Rajagopalan G, Tamhane AS, Venkatavaradan VS (1971) Fission fragment tracks in apatite: recordable track lengths. Earth Planet Sci Lett 13:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bigazzi G (1967) Length of fission tracks and age of muscovite samples. Earth Planet Sci Lett 3:434–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bigazzi G (1981) The problem of the decay constant λf of 238U. Nucl Tracks 5:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigazzi G, Ercan T, Oddone M, Özdoḡan M, Yeḡingil Z (1993) Application of fission track dating to archaeometry: provenance studies of prehistoric obsidian artifacts. Nucl Tracks Rad Meas 22:757–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohr N, Wheeler JA (1939) The mechanism of nuclear fission. Phys Rev 56:426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandon MT (1996) Probability density plot for fission-track grain-age samples. Radiat Meas 26:663–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briggs ND, Westgate JA (1978) A contribution to the Pleistocene geochronology of Alaska and the Yukon territory: fission track age of distal tephra units. In: Short papers of 4th International Conference, Geochronology, Cosmochronology, Isotope Geology 1978. US Geology Survey Open-File Rep vol 78, no 701, pp 49–52Google Scholar
  12. Brill RH, Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1964) The fission-track dating of man-made glasses. J Glass Studies 6:151–155Google Scholar
  13. Burchart J (1972) Fission track determinations of accessory apatite from the Tatra mountains, Poland. Earth Planet Sci Lett 15:418–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burchart J (1981) Evaluation of uncertainties in fission track dating: some statistical and geochemical problems. Nucl Tracks 5:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calk LC, Naeser CW (1973) The thermal effect of a basalt intrusion on fission tracks in quartz monzonite. J Geol 81:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlson WD, Donelick RA, Ketcham RA (1999) Variability of apatite fission-track annealing kinetics: I. experimental results. Am Mineral 84:1213–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter BS, Reimer GM (1974) Calibrated glass standards for fission track use. NBS Special Publication 260–49Google Scholar
  18. Cebula GT, Kunk MJ, Mehnert HH, Naeser CW, Obradovich JD, Sutter JF (1986) The Fish Canyon Tuff, a potential standard of the 40Ar–39Ar and fission-track methods. In: Abstracts, 6th International Conference on Geochronology, Cosmochronology and Isotope Geology, Terra Cognita vol 6, no 2, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  19. Christopher PA (1969) Fission track ages of younger intrusions in southern Maine. Geol Soc Am Bull 80:1809–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Church SE, Bickford ME (1971) Spontaneous fission track studies of accessory apatite from granitic rocks of the Sawatch Range, Colorado. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:1727–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarke ACWV, Carter A (1987) Handling of counting data for fission track dating. Nucl Tracks 13:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coyle DA, Wagner GA (1996) Fission-track dating of zircon and titanite from the 9101 m deep KTB: observed fundamentals of track stability and thermal history reconstruction. In International Workshop on Fission-Track Dating, Gent 1996, Abstracts, 22Google Scholar
  23. De Corte F, Bellemans F, van den Haute P, Ingelbrecht C, Nicholl C (1998) A new U-doped glass certified by the European Commission for the calibration of fission-track dating. In: van den Haute P, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology pp 67–78. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  24. Dodson MH (1973) Closure temperature in cooling geochronological and petrological systems. Contrib Miner Petrol 40:259–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duddy IR, Green PF, Laslett GM (1988) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 3: variable temperature behaviour. Chem Geol (Isot Geosci Sect) 73:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durrani SA, Khan HA (1970) Annealing of fission tracks in tektites: corrected ages of Bediasites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 9:431–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fermi E (1934) Possible production of elements of atomic number higher than 92. Nature 133:898–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fitch FJ, Hurford AJ (1977) Fission track dating of the Tardree Rhyolite, Antrim. Proc Geol Assoc 88:261–266Google Scholar
  29. Fitzgerald PG, Malusà MG (2018) Concept of the exhumed partial annealing (retention) zone and age-elevation profiles in thermochronology (Chapter 9). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  30. Fleischer RL (1998) Tracks to innovation: nuclear tracks in science and technology. Springer, Berlin, 605 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Fleischer RL, Hart HR (1972) Fission track dating: techniques and problems. In: Bishop WW, Miller JA, Cole S (eds) Calibration of hominoid evolution. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp 135–170Google Scholar
  32. Fleischer RL, Price PB (1963) Charged particle tracks in glass. J Appl Phys 34:2903–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Symes EM, Miller DS (1964a) Fission track ages and track annealing behavior of some micas. Science 143:349–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1964b) Fission track ages of zircons. Geophys Res 69:4885–4888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM, Leakey LSB (1965a) Fission track dating of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge. Science 148:72–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1965b) Effects of temperature, pressure and ionization on the formation and stability of fission tracks in minerals and glasses. J Geophys Res 70:1497–1502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fleischer RL, Viertl JRM, Price PB, Aumento F (1971) A chronological test of ocean-bottom spreading in the North Atlantic. Rad Effects 11:193–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleischer RL, Price PB, Walker RM (1975) Nuclear tracks in solids. University of California Press, Berkeley, 605ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Flerov GN, Petrjak KA (1940) Spontaneous fission of uranium. J Phys 3:275–280Google Scholar
  40. Galbraith RF (1981) On statistical models for fission track counts. Math Geol 13:471–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Galbraith RF (1988) Graphical display of estimates having differing standard errors. Technometrics 30:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Galbraith RF (1990) The radial plot: graphical assessment of spread in ages. Nucl Tracks Rad Measure 17:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Galbraith RF, Laslett GM (1993) Statistical models for mixed fission track ages. Nucl Tracks Rad Measure 21:459–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gentner W, Lippolt H, Schäffer OA (1963) Argonbestimmungen an Kaliummineralien-XI: Die Kalium-Argon-Alter der Gläser des Nordlinger Rieses und der bohmisch-mahrischen Tektite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 27:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gleadow AJW (1981) Fission track dating methods: what are the real alternatives? Nucl Tracks 5:1–14Google Scholar
  46. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR (1981) A natural long-term annealing experiment for apatite. Nucl Tracks 5:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gleadow AJW, Lovering JF (1977) Geometry factor for external detectors in fission track dating. Nucl Track Detect 1:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gleadow AJW, Lovering JF (1978) Thermal history of granitic rocks from western Victoria: a fission track dating study. J Geol Soc Aust 25:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gleadow AJW, Hurford AJ, Quaife RD (1976) Fission track dating of zircon: improved etching techniques. Earth Planet Sci Lett 33:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR, Lovering JF (1983) Fission track analysis: a new tool for the evaluation of thermal histories and hydrocarbon potential. Aust Pet Explor Assoc J 23:92–102Google Scholar
  51. Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR, Green PF, Lovering JF (1986) Confined fission track lengths in apatite: a diagnostic tool for thermal history analysis. Contrib Miner Petrol 94:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gold R, Armani RJ, Roberts JH (1968) Absolute fission rate measurements with solid-state track recorders. Nucl Sci Eng 34:13–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Green PF (1980) On the cause of shortening of spontaneous fission tracks in certain minerals. Nucl Tracks 4:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Green PF (1981a) Track-in-track length measurements in annealed apatites. Nucl Tracks 5:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Green PF (1981b) A new look at statistics in fission track dating. Nucl Tracks 5:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Green PF (1985) Comparison of zeta calibration baselines for fission track dating of apatite, zircon and sphene. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 58:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Green PF, Durrani SA (1977) Annealing studies of tracks in crystals. Nucl Track Detection 1:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Green PF, Durrani SA (1978) A quantitative assessment of geometry factors for use in fission track studies. Nucl Tracks 2:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Green PF, Hurford AJ (1984) Thermal neutron dosimetry for fission track dating. Nucl Tracks 9:231–241Google Scholar
  60. Green PF, Duddy IR, Gleadow AJW, Tingate PR, Laslett GM (1986) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite: I—a qualitative description. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 59:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Green PF, Duddy IR, Laslett GM, Hegarty KA, Gleadow AJW, Lovering JF (1989) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 4: quantitative modeling techniques and extension to geological timescales. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 79:155–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Haack U (1977) The closing temperature for fission track retention in minerals. Am J Sci 277:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hahn O, Strassmann F (1939) Über den Nachweis und das Verhalten der bei der Bestrahlung des Urans mittels Neutronen entstehenden Erdalkalimetalle. Naturwissenschaften 27:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harrison TM, Armstrong RL, Naeser CW, Harakal JE (1979) Geochronology and thermal history of the Coast Plutonic complex, near Prince Rupert, B.C. Can J Earth Sci 16:400–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hasebe N, Barbarand J, Jarvis K, Carter A, Hurford A (2004) Apatite fission-track chronometry using laser ablation ICP-MS. Chem Geol 207:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Honess AP (1927) The nature, origin and interpretation of the etch figures on crystals. Wiley, New York, p 171Google Scholar
  67. Hurford AJ (1986a) Standardization of fission-track dating calibration: results of questionnaire distributed by International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on Geochronology. Nucl Tracks 11:329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hurford AJ (1986b) Cooling and uplift patterns in the Lepontine Alps, South Central Switzerland and an age of vertical movement on the Insubric fault line. Contrib Miner Petrol 92:413–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hurford AJ (1990) Standardization of fission-track dating calibration: recommendation by the Fission Track Working Group of the I.U.G.S. Subcommission on Geochronology. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 80:171–178Google Scholar
  70. Hurford AJ (1998) Zeta: the ultimate solution to fission-track analysis calibration or just an interim measure? In: De Corte F, van den Haute P (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1981a) A reappraisal of neutron dosimetry and 238U λf values in fission-track dating. Nucl Tracks 5:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1981b) Standards, dosimetry and the 238U λf decay constant: a discussion. Nucl Tracks 5:73–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1982) A users’ guide to fission-track dating calibration. Earth Planet Sci Lett 59:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hurford AJ, Green PF (1983) The zeta age calibration of fission-track dating. Isotope Geosci 1:285–317Google Scholar
  75. Hurford AJ, Hammerschmidt K (1985) 40Ar-39Ar and K-Ar dating of the Bishop and Fish Canyon tuffs: calibration ages for fission-track dating standards. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 58:23–32Google Scholar
  76. Hurford AJ, Watkins RT (1987) Fission-track age of the tuffs of the Buluk Member, Bakate Formation, northern Kenya: a suitable fission-track age standard. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 66:209–216Google Scholar
  77. Hurford AJ, Fitch FJ, Clarke ACV (1984) Resolution of the age structure of the detrital zircon populations of two Lower Cretaceous sandstones from the Weald of England by fission-track dating. Geol Mag 121:269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wagner GA, Reimer GM, Jäger, E (1977) Cooling ages derived by apatite fission-track, mica Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating: the uplift and cooling history of the Central Alps. Memoria degli Isituti di Geologia e Mineralogia dell’Universita di Padova 27 ppGoogle Scholar
  79. Ketcham R (2018) Fission track annealing: from geologic observations to thermal modeling (Chapter 3). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  80. Ketcham RA, Donelick RA, Carlson WD (1999) Variability of apatite fission track annealing kinetics III: Extrapolation to geological time scales. Am Mineral 84:1235–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ketcham RA, Carter A, Donelick R, Barbarand J, Hurford A (2007) Improved modeling of fission-track annealing in apatite. Am Mineral 92:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Key RM, Watkins RT (1988) Geology of the Sabarei area. Mines and Geology Department, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Nairobi, Kenya, Report No. 111, 57 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Khan HA, Durrani SA (1973) Measurements of spontaneous fission decay constant of 238U with a mica solid state track detector. Rad Effects 17:133–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kohn B, Chung L, Gleadow A (2018) Fission-track analysis: field collection, sample preparation and data acquisition (Chapter 2). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  85. Lanphere MA, Baadsgaard H (2001) Precise K–Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, Rb–Sr and U/Pb mineral ages from the 27.5 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff reference standard. Chem Geol 175:653–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Laslett GM, Kendall WS, Gleadow AJW, Duddy IR (1982) Bias in measurement of fission-track length distributions. Nucl Tracks 6:79–85Google Scholar
  87. Laslett GM, Green PF, Duddy IR, Gleadow AJW (1987) Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 2: a quantitative analysis. Chem Geol (Isotope Geosci Sect) 65:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (2018) From cooling to exhumation: setting the reference frame for the interpretation of thermocronologic data (Chapter 8). In: Malusà MG, Fitzgerald PG (eds) Fission-track thermochronology and its application to geology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  89. Märk E, Pahl M, Purtsceller F, Märk TD (1973) Thermische Ausheilung von Uran-Spaltspuren in Apatiten alterskorrekturen un Beitrage zur Geothermochronology. Tscher Miner Petrog Mitt 20:131–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McDougall I, Roksandic Z (1974) Total fusion 40Ar-39Ar ages using HIFAR reactor. J Geol Soc Aust 21:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McDougall I, Watkins RT (1985) Age of hominoid-bearing sequence at Buluk, Northern Kenya. Nature 318:175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McDougall I, Wellman P (1976) Potassium-argon ages for some Australian Mesozoic igneous rocks. J Geol Soc Aust 23:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McDowell FW, Keizer RP (1977) Timing of mid-Tertiary volcanism in the Sierra Madre Occidental between Durango City and Mazatlan, Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 88:1479–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McDowell FW, McIntosh WC, Farley KA (2005) A precise 40Ar-39Ar reference age for the Durango apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track dating standard. Chem Geol 214:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mehta PP, Rama (1969) Annealing effects in muscovite and their influence on dating by the fission track method. Earth Planet Sci Lett 7:82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Meitner L, Frisch O (1939) Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a new type of nuclear reaction. Nature 143:239–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Miller DS (1968) Fission track ages on 250 and 2500 m.y. micas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 4:379–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Naeser CW (1967) The use of apatite and sphene for fission track age determinations. Geol Soc Am Bull 78:1523–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Naeser CW (1969) Etching tracks in zircons. Science 165:388–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Naeser CW (1979) Fission track dating and geologic annealing of fission tracks. In: Jäger E, Hunziker JC (eds) Lectures in isotope geology. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 154–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Naeser CW, Dodge FCW (1969) Fission-track ages of accessory minerals from granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 80:2201–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Naeser CW, Faul H (1969) Fission track annealing in apatite and sphene. J Geophys Res 74:705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Naeser CW, McKee EH (1970) Fission track and K/Ar ages of Tertiary ash-flow tuffs, north-central Nevada. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:3375–3384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Naeser CW, Gleadow AJW, Wagner GA (1979) Standardization of fission track data reports. Nucl Tracks 3:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Noddack I (1934) Über das Element 93. Angew Chem 47:653–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Paulick J, Newesely H (1968) Zur Kenntis der Apatite der Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexiko. Neu Jb Mineral, Mh 1(2):224–235Google Scholar
  107. Philips D, Matchan E (2013) Ultra-high precision 40Ar/39Ar ages for Fish Canyon Tuff and Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine: new dating standards required? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 121:229–239Google Scholar
  108. Poupeau G, Carpena J, Chambaudet A, Romary P (1980) Fission track plateau-age dating. In: Francois H et al (eds) Solid state nuclear track detectors. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 965–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Price PB, Walker RM (1962a) Observation of fossil particle tracks in natural micas. Nature 196:732–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Price PB, Walker RM (1962b) Chemical etching of charged-particle tracks in solids. J Appl Phys 33:3407–3412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Price PB, Walker RM (1963) Fossil tracks of charged particles in mica and the age of minerals. J Geophys Res 68:4847–4862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rahn MK, Brandon MT, Batt GE, Garver JI (2004) A zero-damage model for fission-track annealing in zircon. Am Mineral 89:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Roden MK, Parrish RR, Miller DS (1990) The absolute age of the Eifelian Tioga ash bed, Pennsylvania, J Geology 98:282–285Google Scholar
  114. Roebben G, Derbyshire M, Ingelbrecht C, Lamberty A (2006) Certification of uranium mass fraction in IRMM-540R and IRMM-541 uranium-doped oxide glasses. European Community Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements Report EUR 22111 EN, Scientific and Technical Research series, Luxembourg, 27 pp, ISBN 92-79-01630-XGoogle Scholar
  115. Ross RJ, Naeser CW, Izett GA, Whittington HB, Hughes CP, Rickards RB, Zalasiewicz J, Sheldon PR, Jenkins CJ, Cocks LRM, Bassett MA, Toghill P, Dean WT, Ingham JK (1982) Fission track dating of Lower Palaeozoic bentonites in British stratotypes. Geol Mag 119:135–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Selo M, Storzer D (1981) Uranium distribution and age pattern of some deep-sea basalts from the Entrecasteaux area, South-Western Pacific: a fission-track analysis. Nucl Tracks 5:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Seward D (1974) Age of New Zealand Pleistocene substages by fission track dating of glass shards from tephra horizons. Earth Planet Sci Lett 24:242–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Seward D (1975) Fission track ages of some tephras from Cape Kidnappers, Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand. N Z J Geol Geophys 18:507–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Seward D, Wagner GA, Pichler H (1980) Fission track ages of Santorini volcanics (Greece). In: Doumas C, (ed) Thera and the Aegean World II, Papers & Proceedings 2nd International Science Congress, Santorini, Greece, August 1978Google Scholar
  120. Silk ECH, Barnes RS (1959) Examination of fission fragment tracks with an electron microscope. Phil Mag 4:970–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Steiger RH, Jäger E (1977) Subcommission on geochronology: convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology. Earth Planet Sci Lett 36:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Steven TA, Mehnert HH, Oradovich JD (1967) Age of volcanic activity in the San Juan mountains, Colorado. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 575-D: 47–55Google Scholar
  123. Storzer D, Poupeau G (1973) Ages-plateaux de mineraux et verres par la methode de traces de fission. CR Acad Sci Paris 276(D):137–139Google Scholar
  124. Storzer D, Wagner GA (1969) Correction of thermally lowered fission track ages of tektites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 5:463–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Stuckless JS, Naeser CW (1972) Rb-Sr and fission track age determinations in the Precambrian plutonic basement around the Superstition Volcanic Field, Arizona. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 800-B: B191–B194Google Scholar
  126. Swanson ER, Keizer RP, Lyons JI, Clabaugh SE (1978) Tertiary volcanism and caldera development near Durango City, Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 89:1000–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tagami T (1987) Determination of zeta calibration constant for fission track dating. Int J Rad Appl Instrum D 13:127–130Google Scholar
  128. Tagami T (2005) Zircon fission-track thermochronology and applications to fault studies. Rev Mineral Geochem 58:95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tagami T, Carter A, Hurford AJ (1996) Natural long-term annealing of the zircon fission-track system in Vienna Basin deep borehole samples: constraints upon the partial annealing zone and closure temperature. Chem Geol 130:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tagami T, Farley KA, Stockli DF (2003) (U-Th)/He geochronology of single zircon grains of known Tertiary eruption age. Earth Planet Sci Lett 207:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thiel K, Herr W (1976) The 238U spontaneous fission decay constant re-determined by fission tracks. Earth Planet Sci Lett 30:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. van den Haute P, De Corte F, Jonckheere R, Bellemans F (1998) The parameters that govern the accuracy of fission-track age determinations: a re-appraisal. In: van den Haute P, De Corte F (eds) Advances in fission-track geochronology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 33–46Google Scholar
  133. Wagner GA (1968) Fission track dating of apatites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 4:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wagner GA (1969) Spuren der spontanen Kernspaltung des 238Urans als Mittel zur Datierung von Apatiten und ein Beitrag zur Geochronologie des Odenwaldes. Neues Jb Miner Abh 110:252–286Google Scholar
  135. Wagner GA (1972) The geological interpretation of fission track ages. Trans Am Nucl Soc 15:117Google Scholar
  136. Wagner GA (1978) Archeological applications of fission-track dating. Nucl Track Detect 2:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wagner GA, Reimer GM (1972) Fission track tectonics: the tectonic interpretation of fission track ages. Earth Planet Sci Lett 14:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wagner GA, Storzer D (1970) Die Interpretation von Spaltspurenaltern (fission track ages) am Beispiel von naturlichen Gläsern, Apatiten und Zirkonen. Eclogae Geol Helv 63:335–344Google Scholar
  139. Wagner GA, van den Haute P (1992) Fission-track dating. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Solid Earth Sciences Library vol 6, 285 ppGoogle Scholar
  140. Wagner GA, Reimer GM, Carpenter BS, Faul H, Van den Linden R, Gijbels R (1975) The spontaneous fission rate of 238U and fission track dating. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1279–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Williams IS, Tetley NW, Compston W, McDougall I (1982) A comparison of K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of rapidly cooled igneous rocks: two points in the Palaeozoic time scale re-evaluated. J Geol Soc London 139:557–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yamada R, Tagami T, Nishimura S, Ito H (1995) Annealing kinetics of fission tracks in zircon: an experimental study. Chem Geol (Isotop Geosci Sect) 104:251–259Google Scholar
  143. Young DA (1958) Etching of radiation damage in lithium fluoride. Nature 182:375–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Young EJ, Myers AT, Munson EL, Conklin NM (1969) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of fluorapatite from Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 650-D: D84–D93Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Potters BarUK

Personalised recommendations