Questions 21–30

  • Yousaf Ali


This chapter illustrates a variety of different scenarios of rheumatic disease in succinct question and answer format. It contains ten complex cases with potentially unusual diagnoses designed to stimulate thought and further reading in this rapidly evolving specialty.


Assessment of rheumatic diseases Complex rheumatology cases Rare rheumatic diseases Rheumatology board exam preparation Rheumatology case studies Study guide for rheumatology 


  1. 1.
    Fujiwara K, Furuta Y, Fukuda S. Two cases of Heerfordt’s syndrome: a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2016;2016:3642735.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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    Darlington P, Tallstedt L, Padyukov L, et al. HLA-DRB1* alleles and symptoms associated with Heerfordt’s syndrome in sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J. 2011;38(5):1151–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Sakata VM, da Silva FT, Hirata CE, de Carvalho JF, Yamamoto JH. Diagnosis and classification of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13(4-5):550–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Hooper TL, et al. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a controversial clinical condition. Part 1: anatomy, and clinical examination/diagnosis. J Manual Manipulative Ther. 2010;182:74–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Rokutanda R, Kishimoto M, Okada M. Update on the diagnosis and management of Behçet’s disease. Open Access Rheumatol Res Rev. 2015;7:1–8.Google Scholar
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    Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Giant-cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(1):50–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haering M, Holbro A, Todorova MG, et al. Incidence and prognostic implications of diplopia in patients with giant cell arteritis. J Rheumatol. 2014;41(7):1562–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Ypsilantis E, Courtney ED, Chopra N, et al. Importance of specimen length during temporal artery biopsy. Br J Surg. 2011;98(11):1556–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bone I, Hadley DM. Syndromes of the orbital fissure, cavernous sinus, cerebello- pontine angle, and skull base. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:iii29–38.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robin NH, Moran RT, Ala-Kokko L. Stickler syndrome. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., editors. GeneReviews®. Seattle, WA: University of Washington; 1993–2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malipeddi A, Reddy VR, Kallarackal G. Posterior interosseous nerve palsy: an unusual complication of rheumatoid arthritis: case report and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2011;40(6):576–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aral CA, Dilber E, Aral K, Sarica Y, Sivrikoz ON. Management of cyclosporine and nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(12):ZD12–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petri M, Orbai AM, Alarcón GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(8):2677–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yousaf Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Mount Sinai HospitalNew YorkUSA

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