The 4S method is an integrated, four-stage problem-solving approach that combines the tools of strategy consulting with insights from cognitive science and design thinking. The first S is to State the problem properly, identifying the core question at hand as well as its context, owner, and stakeholders. The second S is to Structure the problem, either around candidate solution(s) you will test or by splitting the core question into sub-issues that you will investigate systematically. Third, you will Solve the problem. Three distinct paths are possible through these stages: the analytical paths of hypothesis-driven and issue-driven problem solving, discussed in Chaps. 4, 5, 6 and 7, and the creative path of design thinking, covered in Chaps. 8 and 9. Finally, the fourth stage is to Sell your solution to the problem owner.