Cell Wall Expansion as Viewed by the Creep Method
After being formed, plant cells increase in volume during the cell expansion process in which the cell wall plays a prominent role. Cell wall extensibility, a crucial characteristic that defines plant cell growth rate at the biophysical level, is currently estimated by the use of several indirect techniques. One of them, the creep method, measures cell wall extension under a constant load over time in the principal direction of cell and organ growth and mimics the action of turgor on growing cell walls better than other techniques. This review provides the last technical advances and novel metrics of the creep method predicting cell wall extensibility. The potential of the creep method to uncover new cell wall-loosening/tightening proteins is discussed.
KeywordsExpansive growth Cell wall Extensibility Creep Arabidopsis
The authors acknowledge Saint Petersburg State University for the research grant 1.40.492.2017, RFBR for the grant No 15-04-04075, the University of Antwerp, the Research Foundation-Flanders (FWO; grants G039815 N, G065613 N, G.0.602.11.N.10 and 1.5.091.11.N.00).
- Brüggenwirth M, Knoche M (2016) Factors affecting mechanical properties of the skin of sweet cherry fruit. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 141:45–53Google Scholar
- Durachko DM, Cosgrove DJ (2009) Measuring plant cell wall extension creep induced by acidic pH and by alpha-expansin. JoVE 25:e1263Google Scholar
- Suslov D et al (2012) Cell wall mechanical properties of Arabidopsis hypocotyls in connection with growth and gravitropism: effects of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, expansin-like proteins and brassinosteroids. In: 7th plant biomechanics international conference, Clermont-Ferrand, 20–24 Aug 2012Google Scholar
- Wiedemeier AM, Judy-March JE, Hocart CH, Wasteneys GO, Williamson RE, Baskin TI (2002) Mutant alleles of Arabidopsis RADIALLY SWOLLEN 4 and 7 reduce growth anisotropy without altering the transverse orientation of cortical microtubules or cellulose microfibrils. Development 129:4821–4830PubMedGoogle Scholar