Folding, Wrinkling, and Buckling in Plant Cell Walls
In this chapter, we discuss various cases of cell and tissue wrinkling or folding from the perspective of a putative mechanism of their formation—tissue folding in the contractile roots; cell or meristem surface folding in phyllotaxis generation; the formation of the stomata pore and various types of gas spaces; the development of jigsaw puzzle-shaped epidermal cells; and the wrinkling of cell wall layers after the removal of tensile stress. We also address the biological role of such shaped cells or tissues and the mechanical property or state of the cell wall or tissue that is manifested by its folding or wrinkling. Buckling and differential growth are likely ways to generate folds or wrinkles. The former is an intuitive mechanism from the mechanical perspective, while the latter derives from biology. Some cases of cell or tissue morphogenesis suggest that locally the two mechanisms may simultaneously contribute to the formation of a wavy shape.
KeywordsAerenchyma Cell wall buckling Contractile roots Differential growth Intercalary gas spaces Leaf and petal epidermis Phyllotaxis
Work in D.K. research team is supported by the National Science Centre, Poland, research grant MAESTRO no. 2011/02/A/NZ3/00079. We thank Dr. Agata Burian for the discussions and valuable comments on this manuscript and Dr. Magdalena Raczyńska-Szajgin for the micrographs of the A. grandiflora petal epidermis. The drawings presented in the figures were prepared using Adobe Design Premium CS4 (Adobe Systems Inc. USA) and CorelDRAW X6 (Corel Corp.).
- Augustine SM, Cherian AV, Syamaladevi DP, Subramonian N (2015) Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) acts as a key regulator in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) in response to drought stress. Plant Cell Physiol 56:2368–2380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bünning E, Biegert F (1953) Die Bildung der Spaltöffnungsinitialen bei Allium cepa. Z Bot 41:17–39Google Scholar
- Cosgrove DJ (2016) Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening [version1; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research, 5:F1000 Faculty Rev-119Google Scholar
- Fujita M, Himmelspach R, Ward J, Whittington A, Hasenbein N, Liu Ch, Truong TT, Galway ME, Mansfield SD, Hocart ChH, Wasteneys GO (2013) The anisotropy1 D604 N mutation in the Arabidopsis cellulose synthase1 catalytic domain reduces cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes. Plant Physiol 162:74–85CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Higaki T, Takigawa-Imamura H, Akita K, Kutsuna N, Kobayashi R, Hasezawa S, Miura T (2016) Exogenous cellulose switches cell interdigitation to cell elongation in an RIC1-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells. Plant Cell Physiol 58:106–119Google Scholar
- Hiller GH (1872) Untersuchungen über die Epidermis der Blüthenblätter. Jahrb f wiss Bot 15:411–452Google Scholar
- Prat R, André JP, Mutaftschiev S, Catesson AM (1997) Three-dimensional study of the intercellular gas space in Vigna radiate hypocotyl. Protoplasma 196:69–77Google Scholar
- Sack FD (1987) The development and structure of stomata. In: Zeiger E, Farquhar GD, Cowan IR (eds) Stomatal function. Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp p59–p89Google Scholar
- Sampathkumar A, Krupiński P, Wightman R, Milani P, Berquand A, Boudaoud A, Hamant O, Jönsson H, Meyerowitz EM (2014) Subcellular and supracellular mechanical stress prescribes cytoskeleton behavior in Arabidopsis cotyledon pavement cells. eLife 3:e01967Google Scholar
- Ugural AC (1999) Stresses in plates and shells. WCD McGraw-Hill, Boston-TorontoGoogle Scholar
- Urbanowicz BR, Bennett AB, del Campillo E, Catalá C, Hayashi T, Henrissat B, Höfte H, McQueen-Mason SJ, Patterson SE, Shoseyov O, Teeri TT, Rose JKC (2007) Structural organization and a standardized nomenclature for plant endo-1, 4-β-glucanases (cellulases) of glycosyl hydrolase family 9. Plant Physiol 144:1693–1696CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar