Somatic Embryogenesis in Elite Indonesian Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

  • Mirni U. BustamiEmail author
  • S. Werbrouck
Part of the Forestry Sciences book series (FOSC, volume 85)


Indonesia is nowadays the third largest cacao beans producer in the world after Ivory Coast and Ghana, supplying around 16% of the world demand. However, in recent years, Indonesian cacao bean production has been steadily declining while demand in local and international markets is growing. Aging trees (planted in the 1980s), increasing exposure to biotic and abiotic stress, insufficient quality of young plants and lack of recent elite plant material are several causal factors. It is therefore crucial to have alternative mass clonal propagation of selected elite Indonesian cacao. As with many other woody species, somatic embryogenesis has been found being a powerful tool for mass clonal propagation of cacao. Until recently, somatic embryogenesis for cacao genotypes presently used in Sulawesi island of Indonesia have not been developed. Here, we provide a protocol for somatic embryogenesis in ‘Sulawesi 2’ cultivated in Sulawesi island of Indonesia.



This work was supported by a Ph.D. research grant from Directorate General of Resources for Science, Technology and Higher Education Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Applied in Vitro Plant Biotechnology, Department of Applied Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience EngineeringGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Faculty of AgricultureTadulako UniversityCentral SulawesiIndonesia

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