Sampling Principles, Missingness Mechanisms, and Design Weighting

  • Seppo Laaksonen


The schemes of Chap.  2 showed that sample survey data can have some missingness, both intentional missingness and inevitable missingness. Intentional missingness is mostly because of sampling, while inevitable missingness arises from non-responses, ineligibility, undercoverage, and measurement errors. Intentional missingness is, or should be, mostly random, but inevitable missingness is virtually systematic or selective.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seppo Laaksonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Social Research, StatisticsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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