Introduction to Statistical Imputation

  • Seppo Laaksonen


Chapters  11 and  12 are concerned with imputation methods and tools. The first of them gives an introduction that explains the term itself and looks again at missingness issues that have been considered already. Now the main concern is whether to use imputation. Imputation is not automatically recommended: it should be used only if the results are expected to become better.


  1. Blanchflower, D., & Oswald, H. (2008). Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle? Social Science and Medicine, 66, 1733–1749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chambers, R. (2003). Evaluation criteria for statistical editing and imputation. In Euredit Project Papers. Retrieved October 2006, from
  3. Heckman, J. J. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrics, 47(1), 153–161.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kong, A., Liu, J. S., & Wong, W. H. (1994). Sequential imputations and Bayesian missing data problems. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89(425), 278–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Laaksonen, S. (2016). Research note: Happiness by age is more complex than U-shaped. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  6. Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data, Wiley, probability & mathematical statistics (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. 408 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Pfefferman, D. (1993). The role of sampling weights when modeling survey data. International Statistical Review, 61, 317–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Reiter, J. P. (2010). Multiple imputation for disclosure limitation: Future research challenges. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 1(2), Article 7. Retrieved November 2014, from
  9. Rubin, D. B. (2004). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. Hoboken: Wiley Interscience.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Vannieuwenhuyze, J., Loosveldt, G., & Molenberghs, G. (2010). A method for evaluating mode effects in mixed-mode surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5, 1), 1027–1045. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seppo Laaksonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Social Research, StatisticsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations