Advertisement

Peace in Rwanda: Balancing the ICTR and “Gacaca” in Postgenocide Peacebuilding

  • Jean-Damascène Gasanabo
Chapter

Abstract

In the aftermath of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi, the Rwandan people needed to achieve a sense of justice. Attempts by the international community to mediate the justice process were met with skepticism by the Rwandan people. However, the UN Security Council still established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which sought to implement an international framework for the prosecution of the crime of genocide. In this chapter, the author compares the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to the Gacaca process, which operated at a grassroots level; with a mandate to expose the truth about the genocide, it established courts around the country, while also laying the foundations for peace, reconciliation and unity for contemporary Rwanda.

References

  1. Barria, L. A., & Roper, S. D. (2005). How Effective Are International Criminal Tribunals? An Analysis of the ICTY and ICTR. The International Journal of Human Rights, 9(3), 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Betts, A. (2005). Should Approaches to Post-conflict Justice and Reconciliation Be Determined Globally, Nationally or Locally? The European Journal of Development Research, 17(4), 735–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boot, M. (2002). Nullum Crimen Sine Lege and the Subject Matter Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court: Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, War Crimes. Antwerp: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  4. Bornkamm, P. (2012). Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts: Between Retribution and Reparations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brittain, V. (2003). The Arusha Tribunal Costs Too Much for Very Few Results: An Interview with Paul Kagame. African Geopolitics, 11(1), 99–112.Google Scholar
  6. Centre for Conflict Management. (2012). Report on the National Service of Gacaca Courts. Kigali: University of Rwanda.Google Scholar
  7. Charney, J. (2001). International Criminal Law and the Role of Domestic Courts. American Journal of International Law, 95(1), 120–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, P. (2007). Hybridity, Holism, and Traditional Justice: The Case of the Gacaca Courts in Post-genocide Rwanda. George Washington International Law Review, 39(4), 765–832.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, J. (2008). The Three Rs: Retributive Justice, Restorative Justice and Reconciliation. Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social and Restorative Justice, 11(4), 330–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, P. (2014). Negotiating Reconciliation in Rwanda: Popular Challenges to the Official Discourse of Post-genocide National Unity. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 8(4), 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, P., Kaufman, Z. D., & Nicolaïdis, K. (2008). Tensions in Transitional Justice. In P. Clark & Z. D. Kaufman (Eds.), After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond (pp. 381–391). London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  12. Drumbl, M. (2002). Restorative Justice and Collective Responsibility: Lessons for and from the Rwandan Genocide. Contemporary Justice Review, 5(1), 5–22. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1080/10282580210831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fierens, J. (2005). Gacaca Courts: Between Fantasy and Reality. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3(4), 896–919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Franke, K. (2006). Gendered Subjects of Transitional Justice. Columbia Journal of Gender & Law, 15(3), 813–828.Google Scholar
  15. Gacaca Community Justice. (2018). Retrieved from: http://gacaca.rw, 19 June 2018.
  16. Gasanabo, J. (2006). The Rwanda Akazi (Forced Labour) System, History, and Humiliation. Social Alternatives, 25(1), 50–55.Google Scholar
  17. Government of Rwanda. (1996). Organic Law on the Organization of Prosecutions for Offences Constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes Against Humanity Committed Since 1 October 1990, No. 08/96 of 30 August. Kigali, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  18. Government of the Republic of Rwanda. (1996). Organic Law No. 08/96 on the Organization of Prosecutions for Offences Constituting the Crime of Genocide or Crimes Against Humanity Committed Since October 1, 1990. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  19. Halpern, J., & Weinstein, H. (2004). Rehumanizing the Other: Empathy and Reconciliation. Human Rights Quarterly, 26(3), 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Humphrey, M. (2003). International Intervention, Justice and National Reconciliation: The Role of the ICTY and ICTR in Bosnia and Rwanda. Journal of Human Rights, 2(4), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kirkby, C. (2006). Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts: A Preliminary Critique. Journal of African Law, 50(2), 94–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Longman, T. (2009). An Assessment of Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts. Peace Review, 21(3), 304–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McKenna, K. (2006). Gacaca: A Paradigm for Restorative Justice in Rwanda. Trinity College Law Review, 9(5), 5–27.Google Scholar
  24. Megwalu, A., & Loizides, N. (2010). Dilemmas of Justice and Reconciliation: Rwandans and the Gacaca Courts. African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 18(1), 1–23. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.3366/E0954889009000486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Møse, E. (2005). Main Achievements of the ICTR. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3(4), 920–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mugesera, A. (2014). The Persecution of Rwandan Tutsi Before the 1990–1994 Genocide. Kigali, Rwanda: Rwanda Printery.Google Scholar
  27. Nantulya, P. (2006). African Nation-Building and Reconstruction: Lessons from Rwanda. Conflict Trends, 1(1), 45–50.Google Scholar
  28. National Service of Gacaca Courts. (2012). Summary of the Report Presented at the Closing of Gacaca Courts Activities. Kigali, Rwanda: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  29. Nsanzuwera, F. X. (2005). The ICTR Contribution to National Reconciliation. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3(4), 944–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peskin, V. (2005). Beyond Victor’s Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), 213–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reyntjens, F., & Vandeginste, S. V. (2005). Rwanda: An Atypical Transition. In E. Skaar, S. Gloppen, & A. Suhrek (Eds.), Roads to Reconciliation (pp. 101–127). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  32. Ryngaert, C. (2013). State Cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. International Criminal Law Review, 13(1), 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saul, M. (2012). Local Ownership of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Restorative and Retributive Effects. International Criminal Law Review, 12(1), 427–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schabas, W. A. (2005). Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3(4), 879–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Straus, S. (2004). How Many Perpetrators Were There in the Rwandan Genocide? An Estimate. Journal of Genocide Research, 6(1), 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tiemessen, A. (2003). After Arusha: Gacaca Justice in Post-genocide Rwanda (M.A. Thesis). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Retrieved from: https://open.library.ubc.ca/media/download/pdf/831/1.0091268/1.
  37. United Nations Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. (2015). The ICTR in Brief. Retrieved from: http://www.unictr.org/en/tribunal.
  38. United Nations Security Council. (1994). Resolution 955, S/RES/955. New York: UN HQ.Google Scholar
  39. Uvin, P., & Mironho, C. (2003). Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda. Global Governance, 9(2), 219–231.Google Scholar
  40. Villa-Vicencio, C., Nantulya, P., & Savage, T. (2005). Building Nations: Transitional Justice in the African Great Lakes Region. Cape Town: Institute for Justice and Reconciliation.Google Scholar
  41. Werchick, L. (2001). Prospects for Justice in Rwanda’s Citizen Tribunals. Human Rights Brief, 8(3), 15–17, 28.Google Scholar
  42. Westberg, M. (2011). Rwanda’s Use of Transitional Justice After Genocide: The Gacaca Courts and the ICTR. Kansas Law Review, 59(4), 331–367.Google Scholar
  43. Wierzynska, A. (2004). Consolidating Democracy Through Transitional Justice: Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts. New York University Law Review, 79(1), 1934–1969.Google Scholar
  44. Wilson, T. (2011). Procedural Developments at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals, 10(1), 351–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zorbas, E. (2004). Reconciliation in Post-genocide Rwanda. African Journal of Legal Studies, 1(1), 29–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-Damascène Gasanabo
    • 1
  1. 1.The National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG)KigaliRwanda

Personalised recommendations