Advertisement

Ethnic Parallelism: Political Program and Social Reality: An Introduction

  • Tamás Kiss
  • Dénes Kiss
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Politics of Identity and Citizenship Series book series ( CAL)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the notions of ethnic parallelism and the “Minority Society”, which have occupied a central role in the political program and self-representation of Transylvanian Hungarian elites since the interwar period and which were taken for granted by community leaders after 1989. Also, the chapter provides an overview of the thick institutional network meant to underpin the Hungarian societal segment (or pillar), which has played a key role in reproducing ethnic boundaries. The chapter emphasizes that ethnic parallelism can be regarded both as an ethno-political program and as a social reality, but in this latter respect encapsulation is far from perfect, as some fields are imperfectly encapsulated (e.g., education, the churches, mass media), while others are primarily not ethnically integrated (e.g., the economy).

References

  1. Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism (rev. ed.). London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  2. Bakk, M. (2000). Modellviták – rejtett stratégiák. Magyar Kisebbség, 6(1), 8–12.Google Scholar
  3. Bárdi, N. (2006). Nép, nemzet, szuverenitás. Fundamentum, 2, 81–89.Google Scholar
  4. Barna, G. (2004). Erdélyi magyar ifjúsági szervezetek szervezetszociológiai elemzése. Erdélyi Társadalom, 2(2), 85–112.Google Scholar
  5. Biró, Z. A. (1998). Intézményesedési folyamatok a romániai magyarság körében. In Z. A. Biró (Ed.), Stratégia vagy kényszerpályák? Tanulmányok a romániai magyar társadalomról (pp. 16–47). Csíkszereda: Pro-Print.Google Scholar
  6. Bonacich, E. (1972). A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor market. American Sociological Review, 37(5), 547–559. Google Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1993). The field of cultural production: Essays on art and literature. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brubaker, R., Feischmidt, M., Fox, J., & Grancea, L. (2006). Nationalist politics and everyday ethnicity in a Transylvanian town. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Csata, Z., Kiss, D., & Kiss, T. (2004). Az erdélyi magyar kulturális intézményrendszer. Erdélyi Társadalom, 2(1), 133–162.Google Scholar
  10. Culic, I. (2016). Hungarian society in Romania: Political project and practical reality. In S. P. Ramet & M. Valenta (Eds.), Ethnic minorities and politics in post-socialist southeastern Europe (pp. 191–210). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dániel, B. (2014). Az erdélyi magyar nonprofit hátterű szociális szféra szociológiai jellemzői. Civil Szemle, 11(1), 81–107.Google Scholar
  12. Dániel, B., & Kiss, D. (2014). Sociological analysis of the resources of the Hungarian cultural organizations in Romania. Civil Szemle, 11(4), 71–106.Google Scholar
  13. DiMaggio, P. J., & Anheier, H. K. (1990). The sociology of nonprofit organizations and sectors. Annual Review of Sociology, 16(1), 137–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egry, G. (2014). Nép, nemzet, állam, társadalom: “népszolgáló” közösségkép és közösségszervezés az erdélyi magyar kisebbségi politikában. In N. Bárdi & T. G. Filep (Eds.), A népszolgálat fogalomtörténete (pp. 48–71). Pozsony: Kaligramm.Google Scholar
  15. Furnivall, J. S. (1948). Colonial policy and practice: A comparative study of Burma and Netherlands India. Issued in co-operation with the International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Horowitz, D. L. (1985). Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hunyadi, A. (2006). Three paradigms of cooperative movements with nationalist taxonomy in Transylvania. In T. Lorenz (Ed.), Cooperatives in ethnic conflicts: Eastern Europe in the 19th and early 20th century (Vol. 15, pp. 59–102). Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Jenkins, R. (2008). Rethinking ethnicity (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Kántor, Z. (2000). Kisebbségi nemzetépítés. A romániai magyarság mint nemzetépítõ kisebbség. Regio, 11 (3), 219–241. Google Scholar
  20. Kiss, D. (2006). Az erdélyi magyar civil szféráról. Civil Szemle, 3(2), 139–154.Google Scholar
  21. Kiss, D. (2010). Romániai magyar nonprofit szervezetek - 2009–2010 ISPMN (Working Papers No. 37).Google Scholar
  22. Kiss, T. (2004). Vállalkozástörténetek Erdélyben. In É. Kovács (Ed.), A gazdasági átmenet etnikai tájképei (pp. 23–128). Budapest: Teleki László Alapítvány.Google Scholar
  23. Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lijphart, A. (1969). Consociational democracy. World Politics, 21(02), 207–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lijphart, A. (1977). Democracy in plural societies: A comparative exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Livezeanu, I. (1995). Cultural politics in greater Romania: Regionalism, nation building & ethnic struggle, 1918–1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Lőrincz, D. J. (2008). A kolozsvári magyarok társadalma. Regio, 19(2), 240–256.Google Scholar
  28. Salamon, L. M., & Anheier, H. K. (1996). The international classification of nonprofit organizations: ICNPO-Revision 1 (Working Papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project No. 19).Google Scholar
  29. Schermerhorn, R. A. (1978). Comparative ethnic relations: A framework for theory and research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Smith, M. G. (1965). The plural society in the British West Indies. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Sulyok, I. (1931). A kisebbségi kérdés szociológiai oldal. Erdélyi Múzeum, 36(4–6), 170–181.Google Scholar
  32. Tánczos, V. (1998). Kettős hatalmi szerkezet a Székelyföldön. Magyar Kisebbség, 4(2), 339–362. Google Scholar
  33. Toró, T. (2017). Detached implementation. Discourse and practice in minority language usage in Romania. Manuscript. Google Scholar
  34. Wimmer, A. (2002). Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflict: Shadows of modernity. Cambridge, UK and New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Wimmer, A. (2013). Ethnic boundary making: Institutions, power, networks. Oxford studies in culture and politics. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamás Kiss
    • 1
  • Dénes Kiss
    • 2
  1. 1.Romanian Institute for Research on National MinoritiesCluj-NapocaRomania
  2. 2.Hungarian Department of Sociology and Social WorkBabeș-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania

Personalised recommendations