Privacy-Preserving and Co-utile Distributed Social Credit

  • Josep Domingo-FerrerEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10765)


Reputation is a powerful incentive for agents to abide by the prescribed rules of an interaction. In computer science, reputation can be phrased as being an artificial incentive that can turn into self-enforcing protocols that would not be such otherwise. Quite recently, China has announced a national reputation system that will be launched in the future under the name of social credit system. However, to be generalizable without damaging the privacy of citizens/agents, a reputation system must be decentralized and privacy-preserving. We present a peer-to-peer fully distributed reputation protocol in which the anonymity of both the scoring and the scored agents is maintained. At the same time, the reputation protocol itself is co-utile, that is, the rational option for all agents is to honestly fulfill their part in the protocol.


Protocols Reputation P2P Self-enforcement Co-utility Privacy 


Acknowledgments and Disclaimer

Partial support to this work has been received from the Templeton World Charity Foundation (grant TWCF0095/AB60 “CO-UTILITY”), ARC (grant DP160100913), the European Commission (projects H2020-644024 “CLARUS” and H2020-700540 “CANVAS”), the Government of Catalonia (ICREA Acadèmia Prize) and the Spanish Government (projects TIN2014-57364-C2-1-R “SmartGlacis” and TIN 2015-70054-REDC). The author holds the UNESCO Chair in Data Privacy, but the views in this paper are the author’s own and are not necessarily shared by UNESCO.


  1. 1.
    Creemers, R.: China Copyright and Media, 15 March 2018.
  2. 2.
    Domingo-Ferrer, J., Farràs, O., Martínez, S., Sánchez, D., Soria-Comas, J.: Self-enforcing protocols via co-utile reputation management. Inf. Sci. 367–368, 159–175 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Domingo-Ferrer, J., Martínez, S., Sánchez, D., Soria-Comas, J.: Co-utility: self-enforcing protocols for the mutual benefit of participants. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell. 59, 148–158 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Domingo-Ferrer, J., Sánchez, D., Soria-Comas, J.: Co-utility - self-enforcing collaborative protocols with mutual help. Prog. Artif. Intell. 5(2), 105–110 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoffman, K., Zage, D., Nita-Rotaru, C.: A survey of attack and defense techniques for reputation systems. ACM Comput. Surv. 42(1) (2009). Article no. 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kamvar, S.D., Schlosser, M.T., Garcia-Molina, H.: The EigenTrust algorithm for reputation management in P2P networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 640–651. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leyton-Brown, K., Shoham, Y.: Essentials of Game Theory: A Concise Multidisciplinary Introduction. Morgan and Claypool, San Rafael (2008)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, K., Terzi, E.: Towards identity anonymization on graphs. In: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data - SIGMOD 2008, pp. 93–106. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marti, S., Garcia-Molina, H.: Taxonomy of trust: categorizing P2P reputation systems. Comput. Netw. 50(4), 472–484 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Osborne, M., Rubinstein, A.: A Course in Game Theory. MIT Press, Cambridge (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singh, A., Liu, L.: TrustMe: anonymous management of trust relationships in decentralized P2P systems. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P 2003), pp. 142–149 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hsu, S.: China’s new social credit system. The Diplomat, 10 May 2015.
  13. 13.
    Zhou, R., Hwang, K., Cai, M.: GossipTrust for fast reputation aggregation in peer-to-peer networks. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 20(9), 1282–1295 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNESCO Chair in Data Privacy, Department of Computer Science and MathematicsUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliTarragonaCatalonia

Personalised recommendations