The most overt consequences of Turkish and Moroccan religious diaspora policies for Muslim fields in France and Germany have been the preservation of ethno-national boundaries in the organization of Islam in both countries, as well as the promotion of a legal-rational model of religious authority that reinforces the position of home state Islamic institutions in religious fields abroad. Nevertheless, the conclusion underscores that both French and German authorities have consciously permitted or even actively solicited this home state involvement, meaning that the governance of Islam abroad by Turkey and Morocco has rarely if ever been a question of “foreign interference” in internal affairs and has rather taken the form of interstate cooperation within the framework of bilateral diplomatic relations.
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