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Endogenous DAMPs, Category III: Inducible DAMPs (Cat. III DAMPs)

  • Walter Gottlieb Land
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, evidence from the international literature is collected demonstrating that inducible DAMPs as an own category in the classification, besides DAMPs passively released from necrotic cells, are an integral part of the innate immune system evolved to react in a tailor-made fashion with inflammation-promoting and inflammation-resolving responses. In accordance with their different emission and function, the inducible DAMPs are divided into three classes described in single subchapters entitled (1) native molecules operating as inducible DAMPs, (2) modified molecules acting as inducible DAMPs, and (3) suppressing DAMPs, denoted as inducible “SAMPs.” The most prominent subclasses of native molecules include the cytokines tumor necrosis factor and type I interferons that are actively secreted by DAMP-activated innate immune cells, vascular molecules released from Weibel–Palade bodies, and galectins. Prominent candidates of modified molecules include actively secreted, processed interleukin-1 family members, processed high mobility group box 1, and anaphylatoxins. Subgroups of SAMPs refer to molecules known to contribute not to promotion but to resolution of inflammation. They include prostaglandin E2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, annexin A1, as well as distinct specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Together, the accumulating evidence qualifying inducible DAMPs as molecules involved in inflammation-promoting and inflammation-resolving responses is intriguing in that these functions demonstrate productive activity of the defense system even in scenarios of mild or moderate injury not characterized by the occurrence of cell death. However, in situations in which the damage is severe, secreted inducible DAMPs even cooperate in a tailor-made fashion with DAMPs passively released from necrotic cells, the total outcome being the orchestration of a robust host defense to life-threatening injuries such as caused by viral infections.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of StrasbourgMolecular ImmunoRheumatology, Laboratory of Excellence TransplantexStrasbourgFrance

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