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Endogenous DAMPs, Category I: Constitutively Expressed, Native Molecules (Cat. I DAMPs)

  • Walter Gottlieb Land
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides the reader with a collection of endogenous DAMPs in terms of constitutively expressed native molecules. The first class of this category refers to DAMPs, which are passively released from necrotic cells, and includes the most prominent subclasses of high mobility group box I and heat shock proteins. Further subclasses of DAMPs that are passively released from necrotic cells include S100 proteins, nucleic acids, histones, pro-forms of interleukin-1-family members, mitochondria-derived N-formylated peptides, F-actin, and heme. A particular subclass of these passively released DAMPs are molecules, which indirectly activate the inflammasome, including adenosine-5′-triphosphate, monosodium urate crystals, cholesterol crystals, some lipolytic species, and beta-amyloid. All these passively released DAMPs are characterized by their capability to promote necroinflammatory responses. The second class of this Category I refers to molecules, which are exposed on the surface of stressed cells. They include the subclass of phagocytosis-facilitating molecules such as calreticulin, as well as the subclass of MHC-I-related molecules such as MHC-I-related molecule A and B. These DAMPs are capable of inducing the activation of innate lymphoid cells and unconventional T cells. One of these DAMPs, the major histocompatibility complex I-related molecule A, is shown to act as a bona fide transplantation antigen. In sum, the endogenous constitutively expressed native molecules represent an impressive category of DAMPs with extraordinary properties, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of StrasbourgMolecular ImmunoRheumatology, Laboratory of Excellence TransplantexStrasbourgFrance

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