Advertisement

“Crisis” and Crimean Tatars: Discourses of Self-determination in Flux

  • Didem Buhari-Gulmez
Chapter

Abstract

Following Nabers’ seminal work that establishes a “missing link” between crises and transformations, this study focuses on the changes in the Crimean Tatar discourses about Crimean Tatar identity, crises, and Russian and Ukrainian “Others” with a special emphasis on the question of national self-determination. It suggests that a discursive shift of emphasis from the “Deportation crisis” to “Annexation crisis” among Crimean Tatars operates as a “myth” to deal with the inherent divide within the Tatar political movement and conceals the ongoing “hegemonic struggles” over the Crimean Tatar identity and its political representation. Exploring the multiplicity of discourses about Crimean Tatar self-determination, the study emphasizes the need to trace the universalizing and particularizing processes through which Crimean Tatar subjectivities are reconstructed.

References

  1. Al Arabiya News. 2013. “Islamic Radicals Test Ground in Calm Ukraine.” Al Arabiya News, July 29. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/2013/07/29/Islamic-radicals-test-ground-in-calm-Ukraine-.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  2. Altan, M. B. n.d. “The Arabat Tragedy: Another Page from the Surgun.” International Committee for Crimea. http://www.iccrimea.org/surgun/arabat.htm. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  3. Aydıngün, İ., and A. Aydıngün. 2007. “Crimean Tatars Return Home: Identity and Cultural Revival.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33 (1): 113–28.Google Scholar
  4. Aytar, N. 2009. “5. Kırım Tatar Kurultayının 2. Oturumu” [The second session of the 5th Crimean Tatar Qurultay]. Kırım Bülteni 12 (65): 8–10.Google Scholar
  5. Baczynska, G. 2014. “Russia or Ukraine? Crimean Tatars Consider Their Own Vote.” Reuters, March 25. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/25/us-ukraine-crisiscrimea-tatars-idUSBREA2O1F320140325. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  6. Buhari-Gulmez, D. 2015. “From ‘Sürgün’ to Russian Annexation: The Crimean Tatar Question and the Return of the ‘Old Demons’.” Research Turkey IV (6): 82–95. http://researchturkey.org/from-surgun-to-russian-annexation-the-crimean-tatar-question-and-the-return-of-the-old-demons/. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  7. Buhari-Gulmez, D. 2016a. “Religion as Identity Marker: The Dilemma of Crimean Tatars.” In Nation-Building and Identity in the Post-Soviet Space: New Tools and Approaches, edited by Rico Isaacs and Abel Polese. Farnham: Ashgate. ISBN: 978-1-4724-5476-8.Google Scholar
  8. Buhari-Gulmez, D. 2016b. “Autonomy, Self-Determination and Agency in a Global Context.” ProtoSociology 33 (1): 149–67.Google Scholar
  9. Coynash, H. 2011. “Volatile Appointment for the Crimea.” KyivPost, November 9. https://www.kyivpost.com/opinion/op-ed/volatile-appointment-for-the-crimea-116606.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  10. Delanty, G. 2006. “The Idea of a ‘Postwestern Europe’.” In Europe and Asia Beyond East and West, edited by Gerard Delanty. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Dzhemilev, M. 2010a. “Address to the 5th Qurultay of the Crimean Tatar People,” August 28, 115–31.Google Scholar
  12. Dzhemilev, M. 2010b. “Crimean Tatars: Problems and Prospects.” Speech at the European Parliament, March 17.Google Scholar
  13. Dzhemilev, M. 2011. Speech at Simferopol Qurultay Meeting, May 18.Google Scholar
  14. Emel (Journal of Crimean Tatar Foundation in Istanbul). 2014. “Kırım Tatar Milli Kurultayının tam metni” [Full Text of the Crimean Tatar Qurultay]. Emel 84 (246–249): 119–20.Google Scholar
  15. Fabry, M. 2010. Recognizing States. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fisher, A. W. 1978. The Crimean Tatars. Stanford, CA: Hoover Press.Google Scholar
  17. Friedman, J. 1994. Cultural Identity and Global Process. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Gabidullin, I., and M. Edwards. 2014. “Crimea Crisis: The Tatarstan Factor: Why Did Politicians from Kazan Pay Frequent Visits to Crimea Recently?” Al Jazeera, March 15. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/03/crimea-crisis-tatarstan-factor-2014314143349496558.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  19. Geldenhuys, D. 2009. Contested States in World Politics. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Goble, P. 2013. “Politicization of Islam in Crimea Threatens Peninsula’s Stability.” Eurasia Daily Monitor 19, May 12. http://www.ukrweekly.com/archive/2013/The_Ukrainian_Weekly_2013-19.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  21. Hironaka, A. 2005. Neverending Wars: The International Community, Weak States, and the Perpetuation of Civil War. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Human Rights Watch. 2014. “Rights in Retreat: Abuses in Crimea,” November 17. https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/11/17/rights-retreat/abuses-crimea. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  23. İzmirli, İ. P. 2013a. “On Revitalization of the Language and Culture of the Crimean Tatars and Other Formerly Deported People in Crimea, Ukraine: Assessment of Needs and Recommendations.” OSCE, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2308866. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  24. İzmirli, İ. P. 2013b. “Fragmented Islam and Inter-Ethnic Conflict in Crimea, Ukraine: Assessment of Needs and Recommendations.” OSCE, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2309381. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  25. İzmirli, İ. P. 2013c. “Jamestown Foundation: Two Crimean Tatar Mosques Torched in Crimea on the Eve of Major Muslim Holiday.” Eurasia Daily Monitor, October. http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/261096/387248_de.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  26. Kırımlı, H. 1989. “Soviet Educational and Cultural Policies Toward the Crimean Tatars in Exile (1944–1987).” Central Asian Survey 8 (1): 69–88.Google Scholar
  27. Kırımlı, H. 2014. “The Ethnogenesis of the Crimean Tatars.” http://www.thewildfield.org/2014/04/the-ethnogenesis-of-crimean-tatars.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  28. Krushelnycky A. 2013. “Ukraine: Crimea’s Tatars—Clearing the Way for Islamic Extremism?” (Part 4). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, August 26. http://www.rferl.org/articleprintview/1054513.html. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  29. Kuzio, T. 2009. “Islamic Terrorist Threat in the Crimea.” Eurasia Daily Monitor 6 (223), December 4. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35807&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=7&cHash=6e194dfc8d#.Uu2jqfl_tzs. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  30. Meyer, J. W., and R. Jepperson. 2000. “The ‘Actors’ of Modern Society: The Cultural Construction of Social Agency.” Sociological Theory 18 (1): 100–20.Google Scholar
  31. Muratova, E. 2009. “‘He Who Pays the Piper Calls the Tune’: Muslim Sponsors of Islamic Revival in Crimea.” Religion, State and Society 37 (3): 263–76.Google Scholar
  32. Nabers, D. 2015. Poststructuralist Discourse Theory of Global Politics. Houndsmills and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Neumann, I. B. 1999. Uses of the Other: ‘The East’ in European Identity Formation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  34. OSCE. 2013. “The Integration of Formerly Deported People in Crimea, Ukraine: Needs Assessment.” The Hague, August 16. http://www.osce.org/hcnm/104309. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  35. Philpott, D. 1998. “Self-determination in Practice.” In National Self-determination and Secession, edited by M. Moore. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Reid, K. 2011. “Against the Right of Self-Determination,” August 9. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1905257. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  37. Reinke de Buitrago, S. 2012. Portraying the Other in International Relations: Cases of Othering, Their Dynamics and the Potential for Transformation. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
  38. Roepstorff, K. 2013. The Politics of Self-determination: Beyond the Decolonisation Process. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Rumford, C. 2008. Cosmopolitan Spaces: Europe, Globalization, Theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Sabah Daily. 2017. “Ukraine Expropriates Crimean Tatar Battalion’s Base,” Doğan News Agency. February 13. https://www.dailysabah.com/europe/2017/02/13/ukraine-expropriates-crimean-tatar-battalions-base. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  41. Safarov, F. 2016. “Kırım’dan Ukrayna’ya FETÖ tepkisi” [FETO Criticism from Crimea to Ukraine]. Sputnik News, November 20. https://sptnkne.ws/cJZy. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  42. Salem, H. 2014. “Crimea’s Tatars Fear the Worst as It Prepares for Referendum.” The Guardian, March 13. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/13/crimea-tatars-fear-worst-prepares-referendum. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  43. Shapovalova, N., and O. Burlyuk. 2016. “The Situation of National Minorities in Crimea Following Its Annexation by Russia.” European Parliament’s Committee on Human Rights, Belgium. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/578003/EXPO_STU(2016)578003_EN.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  44. Temnenko, Z. 2009. “Islam and Hizb ut-Tahrir’s Activities in Crimea.” Ukraine Working Paper #41. CAEI—Centro Argentino de Estudios Internacionales, June 20. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/125726/RU_41.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  45. TASS (Russian News Agency). 2016. “Official Says Most Crimean Tatars Are Against Reunification with Ukraine,” August 17. http://special.tass.ru/en/politics/894817. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  46. Wilson, A. 2013. “Ukraine’s Crimean Tatars Need EU Attention.” EUobserver, September 6. http://euobserver.com/opinion/121351. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  47. Yarosh, O., and D. Brylov. 2011. “Muslim Communities and Islamic Network Institutions in Ukraine: Contesting Authorities in Shaping of Islamic Localities.” In Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe: Widening the European Discourse on Islam, edited by Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska. Warsaw: University of Warsaw Press.Google Scholar
  48. Young, I. M. 2007. Global Challenges: War, Self-determination and Responsibility for Justice. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Didem Buhari-Gulmez
    • 1
  1. 1.International Relationsİzmir University of EconomicsİzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations